This is the page where I'm putting all I did on the Reading Guide. It is only up to the end of Chapter 17, but feel free to use it and add to it if you have anything I missed.

Chapter 14 Reading Guide

  • Questioning Truth and Authority
    • The Old View
      • From whom did medieval Europeans get their understanding of the world around them?
        • Chinese and Arabs- Ancient Greek translations and Arab numbers
      • How did people explain observed behaviors that disagreed with their understanding of the world?
        • Religion
      • Geocentric
        • Universe revolves around the world
    • Undermining the Old View
      • Hermetic Doctrine
        • How did the Hermetic Doctrine encourage people to study the world in a more scientific manner?
          • “All matter contains divine spirit” encouraged researchers to find the “spirit”
          • Studies of botany, chemistry, metallurgy, alchemy, music/harmony, astrology, and mathematics became common
      • How did exploration, the printing press, and the Reformation affect people's attitudes towards the study of the world around them?
        • Exploration
          • Disproved traditional Ptolemaic Geography
          • Demand for new techniques and tools for navigation- research in astronomy and mathematics
        • Printing Press
          • Easy publication- Fast spread of new ideas
        • Reformation
          • Questioning of traditional views
          • Scientists had backing of Rulers and Church
          • “Insights into the perfection of God’s universe”
  • Developing a Modern Scientific View
    • Astronomy and Physics: From Copernicus to Newton
      • Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
        • Polish Clergyman originally interested in Astronomy, Astrology, Mathematics, and Church Law
        • 1543- published model proving the sun is the center of the solar system
      • Heliocentric- Universe revolves around the sun
        • Why was heliocentrism threatening to church authorities?
          • Threatened Christian conception of the universe- geocentric
      • Johannes Kepler- (1571-1630)
        • How do the three laws of planetary motion (1609-1619) use math to explain the universe?
          • 1st Law- Planets move in ellipses around the sun
          • 2nd Law-Planets’ velocity varied according to their distance from the sun
          • 3rd Law- The Physical relationship between the planets could be expressed mathematically
      • Galileo Galilei- (1564-1642)
        • Principle of Inertia
          • Bodies, once set into motion, will tend to stay in motion.
        • How did the telescope get Galileo in trouble?
          • His observations of the moon as an imperfect body contradicted the Church’s view of it as a “perfect, smooth heavenly body.”
          • His theories forced Europe’s intellectual elite to embrace the Copernican outlook.
      • Isaac Newton- (1642-1727)
        • What were Newton's three most important "discoveries?"
          • Laws of Motion- Inertia, acceleration, action/reaction
        • Law of Universal Attraction/Gravitation
    • The Revolution Spreads: Medicine, Anatomy, and Chemistry
      • How did Paracelcus (1493-1541) change the approach to medicine?
        • Denied the existence of the “humors” and instead looked to chemical imbalances to explain illness
        • Proposed that all matter was made of salt, sulfur, and mercury
        • Herbalist- encouraged people to find natural remedies
      • Why would it be bad to dissect human bodies?
        • Desecration of person's body
        • Andreus Vesalius (1514-1564)
          • Wrote first comprehensive anatomy textbook
        • William Harvey (1578-1657)
          • Discovered heart as pump
        • Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
          • Boyle’s Law
        • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)
          • Saw bacteria for first time through microscope, called them animalcules
        • These findings challenged the beliefs of traditional physicians and scholars
    • The Methodology of Science Emerges
      • describe the difference between the old and new methods for discerning the truth
        • Old method was referring to long-trusted authorities and expanding on their ideas, new method is based solely on observed facts, experimentation, and reasoning based on observation and mathematical laws
      • What did Francis Bacon (1561-1626) think would come out of studying the world scientifically?
        • Improve commerce, industry, and human condition by giving people unprecedented power over their environment
      • René Descartes (1596-1650)
        • “I think, therefore I am.” (“Cogito, ergo sum.”)
          • His key phrase, emphasizing his lack of trust in any previous authority and his belief that the only truth is what is known by reason
        • Cartesian coordinates (x-axis and y-axis)- (bug legend)
        • The objective physical universe could be understood in terms of extension (matter occupying space) and motion (matter in motion)
  • Supporting and Spreading Science
    • Courts and Salons
      • Who supported the work of scientists in the 17th and 18th century? Why?
        • Governments and wealthy aristocrats (ex: Queen Christina of Sweden) supported scientists and scholars in order to gain prestige, use of new technology, and strength and prosperity to their country.
        • Church- Universities first founded to train priests
      • Who supports them now? Why?
        • Universities (academic and monetary gain), Corporations (monetary gain), and the Government (same reasons as old)
    • The Rise of Royal Societies
      • What effects did Royal Societies have on the study of science?
        • Furnished labs, gave subsidiaries, helped exchange of ideas, published findings, honored special achievements
      • Religion and the New Science- Church usually supported Science
        • What was the conflict, if any, between science and religion?
          • Catholic Church had a traditional hierarchy that paralleled its established view of the universe
        • Why might science have been pursued more in Protestant countries than in Catholic ones?
          • Scientists who contradicted the Catholic Church were condemned, which discouraged scientists from publishing controversial work. In Protestant Churches, the punishment was less strict for defying tradition, although not approved.
    • The New Worldview- Change from Aristotelian-medieval worldview to the Copernican-Newtonian Paradigm
      • Copernican-Newtonian Paradigm
        • Heliocentric model
        • Natural order consisted of matter in notion, acting according to mathematically expressible laws.
        • Scientific Truth came from observing, measuring, experimenting, and making reasoned conclusions through the use of sophisticate mathematics.
        • Religion has it’s place but science was the authority on explaining the material world
  • Laying the Foundations for the Enlightenment
    • Why did intellectuals want human reason to "determine understanding of the world and the rules of social life?"
      • Wanted their civilization to advance
    • What approaches were common to Enlightenment thinkers?
      • Critical and Empirical (reason something is true or false based on past experiences) thinking
    • Science Popularized
      • How did some publishers try to attract women to science? Did it work?
        • Wrote Newspapers, Novels, and Treatises on modern day science aimed especially towards women. These methods made science very popular in the elite circles of society.
      • Why would it make sense for every educated person to be familiar with science?
        • So that they could improve themselves and reach an improved standard of living.
      • How did John Locke's ideas influence the schooling of young people?
    • Skepticism and Religion
      • Pierre Bayle
        • What is the legacy of the kind of skepticism that Bayle encouraged?
        • Do you agree with his statement on the separation of morals and religion?
      • David Hume
        • Is it logical to live with "skeptical uncertainty" about everything?
        • How did that attitude challenge traditional knowledge?
    • Broadening Criticism of Authority and Tradition
      • Why did Enlightenment thinkers idealize England?
      • Was Benjamin Franklin right to put so much stock in human progress?
  • The Enlightenment in Full Stride
    • The Philosophes
      • What made philosophes different from previous intellectuals and philosophers?
        • The French term for Philosophers, they differed from other thinkers of the time in that they could be middle class, and tended to expand on others ideas rather than create their own.
        • “Republic of Letters”- common intellectual culture- “establish the laws of philosophy and taste for the rest of the nation.”
    • Françoise Arouet (Voltaire) (1694-1778)
      • What was unattractive about his lover, Émilie du Châtelet (1706-1749)?
        • “She flaunts her mind, and frightens away the suitors her other excesses have not driven off”
        • Defiant of traditional female->male role
      • Why would a monarch like Frederick II of Prussia want to listen to Voltaire's ideas?
        • Voltaire was a philosophes and could bring new ideas and philosophies to Prussia
        • Voltaire was famous, brought more fame to Frederick II
    • The Encyclopedia
      • Denis Diderot (1713-1774)
        • would Diderot and d'Alembert have approved of Wikipedia?
          • Yes and No. Approved of a constantly changing and updating source of information, would not have approved of the easy accessibility
        • Why did the church see an Encyclopedia as threatening?
          • Threat to status quo, threat to Church’s beliefs/power
    • Battling the Church
      • How did the connection between church and state threaten the philosophes?
        • Clerics in the government allowed the writings of philosophes to be officially censored and allowed for imprisonment and exile.
        • Result- Smuggling, books published in Holland or Switzerland, then smuggled across the border into France
      • Deism
        • What separated Deism from other religions at the time?
          • God doesn’t interfere with the struggles of man and has no power over personal lives.
    • Reforming Society
      • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
        • Built on Locke’s work
      • What did philosophes believe were the "natural rights" of man?
        • “Life, liberty, and property,” Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690)
      • How did John Locke justify revolution?
        • If government violates personal rights, people are allowed to overthrow it
      • Baron de Montesquieu
        • How did Montesquieu influence the world's view of government?
          • Separation of power, system of checks and balances
      • What is the Social Contract(1762)?
        • Early form of socialism
      • Why did the philosophes leave the masses alone?
        • Believed they were “ignorant, prone to violence, and unable to reason.”
      • Laissez-faire Economics
        • Early Capitalism
        • Free-market, Supply and Demand
      • Adam Smith (1723-1790)
        • Wealth of Nations- “bible of laissez-faire”
          • How does self-interest promote the good of society?
            • Emphasized commerce, manufacturing, and labor
            • Predicted Industrial Revolution
      • Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
        • Of Crimes and Punishment
        • According to Beccaria, what is the goal of criminal law?
          • “To promote the greatest happiness divided among the greatest number”
          • Deter crime and rehabilitate criminals rather than punish wrong-doers
      • How does one become "enlightened?"
        • Education
      • What is the best way to teach students?
        • Using the Encyclopedia, so “that our children, by becoming more educated, may at the same time become more virtuous and happier.”
      • Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
        • Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
        • how convincing was Wollstonecraft to other philosophers? Why?
          • No female writers of the time were very influential. Anti-feminism was as ingrained as belief in the Church before the Scientific Revolution
    • The Culture and the Spread of the Enlightenment
      • Salons
        • Meetings of the educated elite, discussing ideas of the Enlightenment
          • Influenced economic policies, wars and king’s choice in ministers
          • “Self-conscious forums for arbitrating and molding public opinion through the open use of reason”
      • What was the role of women in the Enlightenment?
        • Leaders, patrons, intellectual contributors
        • Controlled meetings- “rules of polite conversation”
    • How did the ideas of the Enlightenment spread and gain popularity?
      • Gatherings/Salons
      • Letter-writing
      • Discussions in local academies, Freemason lodges, societies, and coffeehouses
      • Bookstores attracted people of all types- peasants, clergy, and philosophers

Chapter 15 Reading Guide

  • Statebuilding and War
      • Did anyone listen to the warning of Louis XIV?
        • Nope- war and building continued
          • Display of power
      • What treaties stopped war at the beginning of the 1700s?
        • Peace of Utrecht (1713-1714)
          • Western Europe
        • Treaty of Nystad (1721)
          • Eastern Europe
      • Who gained power over the 18th century?
        • Prussia and Britain
    • Rising Ambitions in Eastern Europe
      • Peter the Great- Russia
        • Take-over ambitions
          • Sweden- Baltic Coast
          • Poland
      • Brandenburg-Prussia
        • Take-over ambitions
          • Poland
          • Austro-Hungary
      • What did Peter (died 1725) do to Russia?
        • Modernized Russia’s government and military
        • Dominant power in northeastern Europe
        • Nobility-> State bureaucracy and army officer corps.
          • Made enemies of peasants and other countries
          • Gained power after Peter’s death- 6 bad rulers
      • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)- assassinated husband to gain throne
        • What “enlightened” reforms did Catherine enact in Russia?
          • Relaxed traditional restraints on press
          • Confiscated church lands
          • Established new school- for girls as well
          • Legislative Commission
            • Reformed Russia’s legal code
            • 1/2 were commoners (even peasants)
          • Instruction (1767)- equality before law, abolition of torture, ‘other liberal reforms’
        • What marked the end of Catherine’s interest in the Enlightenment?
          • Allowed total domination of peasants/serfs
          • 1768- War against Ottoman Empire
          • 1774- Defeated Turks- took Black Sea and Balkan Peninsula
        • Why did Yemelyan Pugachev (Don Cossack) lead a revolt?
          • Claimed to be her dead husband, “redeemer tsar”
          • Lack of promised reforms
      • The Partition of Poland
        • Divided Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria (1795)
      • Frederick William I (1713-1740), the “Sergeant King”
        • What was the inspiration for Frederick I’s reforms?
          • Absolutism, centralized bureaucratic administration, and the military
          • Army was used as infrastructure constructions- roads and canal building
          • Compulsory service- Draft
          • Soldiers billeted among civilians
        • Benefits of his reign
          • Avoided wars
          • Strong economy
          • Welcomed Protestant and Jewish refugees
          • Filled treasury
      • Frederick II (1740-1786), “the Great”
        • Beliefs
          • Enlightened absolutism
        • Attacked Austria, took over Silesia (part of Poland)
      • Maria Theresa (1740-1780)
        • What were the main differences between Prussia and the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
          • Not militaristic or tightly controlled
          • Complex array of languages groups
          • Semi-autonomous territories
          • Serfs paid taxes directly to lords, not to crown
            • Small royal army
        • The War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
          • Prussia, allied with other German states attacked Austria
        • What made the Diplomatic Revolution happen? Who switched sides?
          • Austria-Hungary-> France
          • Prussia-> Great Britain
          • Reforms
            • Taxation to government
            • Diminish burdens on peasantry
            • Reorganized the bureaucracy
      • The Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
        • pay attention to how this becomes a global conflict...
          • Russia and Sweden joined Austro-Hungarian side
          • After peace between European countries, war continued in India, the Caribbean and North America
        • What saved Frederick II from almost certain defeat?
          • Death of Elizabeth, the Russian Tsarina
            • Peter III of Russia took over, admirer of Frederick and pulled Russia out of war
          • Frederick spent remaining 23 years of his life reconstructing his territories
            • First Partition of Poland
            • Encouraged agriculture, subsidized and protected industry, and invited immigrants into country.
    • Warfare in the Eighteenth Century
      • How had armies changed since “earlier times?”
        • Now professional forces whose size and organization reflected the centralized, bureaucratic governments they served
        • Reliable Weapons and Changed Tactics
      • What role did battles actually play in 18th century warfare? What was more important?
        • Avoided all-out battles
        • Focused on fortifications, sieges, supply lines, better positioning, and many small advantages
        • Drained resources and man-power of countries overtime
      • What is unenlightened about warfare?
        • Irrational and wasteful
    • Western Europe and the Great Colonial Rivalry
      • Which two western European countries were the main powers in the 1700s?
        • Spain and Holland
        • Both were severely weakened by the end of 17th century
          • Spain still controlled Southern North America and Holland still controlled many Pacific Colonies, but were unable to compete with France and Britain
      • What contributed to the decline of the king’s absolute power in France?
        • Louis XV’s rule
          • Parlements decided they wanted more power
          • Debts
          • Military expenditures
        • Louis XVI’s rule
          • Reinstated Parlements to try to get support- didn’t work
          • Several Reforms, none worked
      • Parlements
        • Nobility in France
        • Wanted power for themselves
        • Worked against the Crown
      • Louis XV
        • Believed in absolute power to the sovereign
        • Could not get reforms through Parlements
          • Dissolved in 1770’s- too late
        • John Law- Private Bank-1716
        • By 1740’s France was pulled back into war
          • Increasing debt and expenditures
        • Tried to enact reform policies but died (1774) before they could take effect
      • Parliament- had upper hand over king, but they had to work together
        • House of Lords
          • Nobility only
        • House of Commons
          • Elected Representative of commoners
      • Cabinet System
        • Group of ministers, usually from House of Commons to help him enact policies.
        • Leaders of majority parties in the House
      • Whigs
        • Commercial Interests
        • Strong Parliament
        • No Catholic Ruler
        • Popular Rights
      • Tories
        • Landowners
        • Strong monarchy
        • Supported Catholic Ruler
      • What contributed to the Whigs’ rise to power?
        • 1714- Tories supported a rebellion with James- Catholic Stuart- as figurehead
        • 1746- 2nd rebellion of Tories- same as first
          • These were known as the Jacobite rebellions
        • George 1 and II incompetent
          • Chose Whigs as Cabinet
            • Robert Walpole
              • Ensured Whig’s superiority in government for the next 20 years
      • How did the parliamentary system end up working?
        • Ministers of all one party led by Prime Minister
        • Debate within Parliament between ruling party and “loyal opposition”
      • What does “loyal opposition” mean?
        • Still loyal to the king and their country, just with different opinions
      • What were Great Britain’s strengths?
        • Not war and conquests, but trade and the way the commerce gained from it is used
      • What was different between how France and Britain colonized America?
        • France
          • Small amount of colonizers
          • Fur trade
          • Little contact with Amerindians
        • Britain
          • Large amount of colonizers
          • War with Amerindians
          • Exported tobacco, rice, cotton and indigo die to England which was then exported throughout Europe
      • What products went where in the triangle of trade?
        • African slaves were taken to the Caribbean and Americas and the goods made by the slaves went back to Europe
      • Middle Passage
        • 2-month sea voyage across the Atlantic to America and Caribbean
      • Where did most slaves end up?
        • Brazil and West Indies
      • What effects did slavery have in the Americas? In Africa?
        • Americas- Developed racism and prejudices that exist even today
        • Africa- created wars within tribes over slavery- West African kingdoms invaded inland tribes
      • French and Indian War
        • Why did Great Britain choose to focus on overseas warfare?
          • France invested most resources in European land-war not overseas
          • Britain took over most of France’s colonies- India, West Indies, North America
            • Was it a good idea?
              • I think so, undermined France's trade and a good amount of the economy
              • Set the stage for Britain to establish worldwide empire in the nineteenth century
    • The Twilight of Monarchies? The Question of Enlightened Absolutism
      • What were the differences between why the kings of France and England were losing power in the 1700s?
        • Britain
          • Parliament continually gaining power over King
        • France
          • Successors to Louis XIV were not good enough.
        • Both
          • Hard to govern effectively
          • Demands from elites for more power
      • How did other kings maintain their power during the same period?
        • Justifying rule
        • Instituting new policies
        • “Enlightened Absolutists”
      • Frederick II (The Great) of Prussia (1740-1786)
        • Music, poetry, philosophy
        • In what areas was he, an Enlightened Monarch, unenlightened?
          • Proclaimed religious tolerance, yet believed that Jews were “useless to the state” and taxed them most heavily
          • Advocated Public Education, but spent little on it compared to what he spent on his army
          • Tried to improve agriculture by introducing new forms of cultivation, but did nothing to free or lighten the burdens of the serfs
          • Involved in several wars and the Partition of Poland
        • In what ways was he enlightened?
          • Codification of laws
          • Abolition of torture
          • Ended capital punishment
      • Joseph II of Austria (1780-1790)
        • Attempted to make country Enlightened, but failed- no balance with nobility and peasants did not understand what he did for them
          • Freedom of Religion and Press
          • Restricted death penalty
          • Promoted education
          • Equality before the law
          • Free serfs
          • Centralize government
          • Unify language
          • Increase religious diversity
      • Why did people reject the enlightened reforms of their monarchs (Why couldn’t monarchy work with enlightened ideas)?
        • Monarchs could not let go of traditional goals: Increase military and economic power
        • Need for governmental efficiency had grown, poorly qualified monarch could no longer serve as single ruler
        • Many rulers did attempt to change their countries and although could not officially be called enlightened today, many made progress toward being enlightened
          • Religious tolerance
          • Humane social institutions
          • Rational administration
    • Changes in Country and City Life
      • Agricultural Revolution
        • What forced agricultural change?
          • Population increase
          • Need for surplus
        • What were the two major developments of the agricultural revolution?
          • Introduction of new crops and farming techniques
          • Transformation from rural farms to controlled properties that produced crops for commerce
        • What is special about clover, turnips, legumes, and potatoes?
          • Replenished soil rather than depleting it
        • Benefits of livestock
          • Cattle, Oxen and Horses, Sheep
            • Meat, leather, soap, manure
        • Jethro Tull- Seed drill and manure- planting more efficient and productive
        • Enclosures
          • Large, enclosed plots of land where crops are destined for commerce rather than local consumption
        • What effect did agricultural transformation have on rural society?
          • Enclosures caused thousands of small, independent farms and landowners to lose their land and livelihood
          • Rural communities disintegrated; destroyed the sense of community support and interaction that had characterized life in the country
      • Manufacturing spreads: Cottage Industry
        • Manufacturing jobs replaced those lost by people forced from agricultural jobs
          • Mostly in Great Britain, France, and Germany
        • How did cottage industry work?
          • Peasants took raw materials given to them by merchants or wealthier landowners and converted them into the products traditionally produced by artists in urban areas. Products were exported to distant markets
        • What were the pros and cons of cottage industry?
          • Pros:
            • Availability- allowed people to stay in rural areas and traditional homes
            • Allowed for work throughout large families
            • Young people got an earlier start on marriage
          • Cons:
            • Pay rarely above starvation wages
            • Work was drudgery
            • Artists in cities lost jobs
            • No urban guild regulations
              • No protection for workers- arguments between merchants and laborers over quality, theft, and wages
              • Set the stage for Industrial Revolution
      • More People, Longer Lives
        • What factors contributed to rising population in Europe?
          • Territorial expansion
          • Earlier marriages
          • More and better food
          • Potatoes!!!!
          • Fewer plagues, illnesses, diseases
        • What was the role of medicine in contributing to rising population and life expectancy?
          • Sanitation
            • Cleaning wells, swamp drainage, burying refuse
          • Medicine surprisingly unhelpful
            • Advances
              • Inoculation against smallpox
              • Improvement in battlefield medicine
            • Hospitals
              • Disorganized
              • Healthy, sick, and dead not separated- easy spread of disease
              • Inefficient- Diderot on the Hotel-Dieu “Imagine a long series of communicating wards filled with sufferers of every kind of disease who are sometimes packed three, four, five or even six into a bed, the living alongside the dead and dying, the air polluted by this mass of unhealthy bodies, passing the pestilence of their afflictions from one to the other, and the spectacle of suffering and agony on every hand. That is the Hotel-Dieu.”
      • Deepening Misery for the Poor
        • What drove food prices higher while keeping wages low?
          • Stiffening competition for food- up
          • Competition for jobs- low
        • How did the poor respond to the challenges of their new lifestyle?
          • Flocked to cities
            • Few found work, most were even worse off.
          • Food riots and tax revolts
            • Attacks on merchants, granaries, and convoys of grain for armies
          • Abandoning Children
            • Most mothers could not take care of their children
              • Children were given to the church, hospitals, and orphanages
        • What was in place to help those in need?
          • Traditional systems
            • Church gave funds to the poor
            • Private charity from wealthier people
          • New Laws
            • Not all government officials sympathized- some claimed the common people deserved it, because many turned to crime to survive
            • English Poor Laws
              • Required poor to work on public projects or in workhouses
              • More to discipline and control poor than help them survive
      • Prosperity and the Bourgeoisie
        • Bourgeoisie
          • Wealthier than lower class, not quite aristocracy
          • Market supplied staples rather than household
          • Expanded class separation
        • Why didn’t the bourgeoisie fit in with either the lower classes or the aristocracy?
          • Not lower class because they lived off investments in trading, manufacturing, and land, rather than physical work
          • Not aristocracy because although they might have had the money, aristocracy thought the position was derived from birthright, not wealth
          • Bourgeoisie wanted the privileges of the aristocracy and were resentful of not getting them
    • The Culture of the Elite: Combining the Old and the New
      • The Advent of the Modern Novel
        • How did novels reflect the values of the bourgeoisie?
          • Realistic social situations- Pamela, or Vitrue Rewarded
          • Revolved around current ideas and events
          • Emphasized emotion and relationships- Romanticism
            • Rejection of formal manners in favor of emotion as a virtue
          • Appealed to Women- Evalina by Fanny Burney
            • Reveals social restrictions and dangers for independent women in the eighteenth century.
      • Pride and Sentiment in Art and Architecture
        • How did art reflect the tastes of the aristocracy?
          • Paintings depicted scenes with members of the landowning elite
          • Architecture in baroque and rococo style- “gaudy splendor”
            • Some new government buildings built in neoclassical style
        • What was the difference between French and English gardens?
          • French
            • Rational, geometric formation- nature tamed by human reason
          • English
            • Reflected nature- idealized version
      • Reaching New Heights in Music
        • What changed about musical audiences during the 1700s?
          • Public concerts and opera halls allowed for larger audience
          • Musicians money now came from paying audiences as well as from the courts and aristocratic patronage.
        • Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
          • German
          • Wrote music for organ, harpsichord, clavichord, orchestra, and chorus
          • Baroque style
        • George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
          • Born same year and region as Bach- Lived in England in the court of King George I
          • Wrote 46 operas
          • Wrote both instrumental and vocal pieces
            • Dignity
            • Formal elegance
            • Harmony
        • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
          • Father- Leopold Mozart- Austrian composer and violinist
            • Sister considered child prodigy as well, not as successful as him
          • Wrote his first composition at five
            • Went on first tour as “child prodigy” at six
          • Overwhelmed many of the best composers of his time
          • 1781- settled in Vienna as teacher and composer
            • Married against will of family
            • Became estranged from father
          • Died at 35
            • Probably dies of infection, but it is rumored that he was poisoned
          • Classical Style
            • Symphonies, concertos, operas
      • The Grand Tour
        • How did European elites share and exchange their culture?
          • Music, art, and literature
            • French was international language
            • Travel became “necessary” to education
    • Culture for the Lower Classes
      • Festivals and Popular Literature
        • What two things served as the inspiration for most festivals?
          • Weddings and Religious/Seasonal Holidays
        • What drove the popularity of literature?
          • Religious tracts, almanacs, small novels, orally
          • 40-60% literary rate in England and France
            • Printing press
            • Increase of primary schools
        • How did culture start to separate the elite from the lower classes?
          • “Leisure activities” were considered crude
          • Upper class still
            • Read same literature
            • Still go to festivals and sport games
      • Gin and Beer- Every class drank
        • Did taxing gin solve Britain’s problems with the poor?
        • Nope
      • Religious Revivals
        • Pietism- private emotional experience of worship over formal tradition
          • Why did people reject organized Protestant churches?
            • Believed they were becoming bureaucratized
        • Methodism, John Wesley
          • “Humble faith, abstinence, and hard work”
          • Barred from Churches
            • Rode across Europe preaching
            • “Lowered religion to the level of the lowest people’s capacities.”
          • Interesting that a religious revival spread among Protestants, Catholics, and Jews at the same time. What might explain that?
            • Correlates with culture at the time
    • Foreshadowing Upheaval: The American Revolution
      • Insults, Interests, and Principles: The Seeds of Revolt
        • Why did Britain want to increase its control of American shipping?
          • End of Seven Years War- England incurred huge debts helping the colonies fight of the French and Indians
            • Expected the colonies to help pay off these debts
            • Colonies were very good at avoiding British mercantilist laws and policies
        • Stamp Act of 1765
          • Taxed printed documents such as newspapers, pamphlets, and wills.
        • Why did British colonists in America feel that they were being mistreated?
          • Taxation without representation- =P
          • “Entitled to all the inherent rights and liberties of his [the king’s] natural born subjects within the kingdom of Great Britain
      • A War for Independence
        • What makes the “Declaration of Independence” an Enlightened document?
          • Cites Enlightenment Ideas
            • “Self-evident truths”
            • “Inalienable natural rights- L, L, and PofH
            • “Long train of abuses”
        • How did the war for American independence become another globe-spanning conflict?
          • American’s gained support against the British from the French, Dutch, and Spanish
          • Ideas promoted in the American Revolution would come back to haunt European Monarchies- French Revolution
        • Battle of Yorktown, 1781
          • French naval victory off coast of Virginia convinced the British that he colonies weren’t worth it
        • Treaty of Paris, 1783
          • Recognized American Independence
            • Ceded the lands between Mississippi River, Canada, and Spanish Florida
      • Creating the New Nation
        • U.S. Constitution written, 1787
          • Who could vote?
            • White, male, landowners
Chapter 16 Reading Guide

  • Overturning the Political and Social Order, 1789-1815
    • “A Great Ferment”
      • What was the surface cause of the French Revolution? What were its deeper causes?
        • Surface
          • France’s finances
        • Deeper
          • Aristocracy and Bourgeoisie wanted more rights and powers
          • Peasants- disorder and uprisings
    • The Financial Crisis Weakens the Monarchy
      • How did France accrue its debt?
        • Wars and maintaining military
      • Why was it worse for France to be in debt than England or the Netherlands?
        • Lack of banking and taxation
      • Why was Jacques Turgot ineffective at reforming the system?
        • Undermined by those benefiting from old system
      • What led to the calling of the Estates General?
        • Assembly of Notables refused to help with financial reforms
    • The Underlying Causes of the Revolution
      • How did the conflict between nobles and the king play itself out?
        • Protecting France from “ministerial despotism”
      • What were the complaints of the bourgeoisie?
        • Barriers to the offices and prestige of nobility
        • Impatient with lack of reforms
      • What was the influence of the Enlightenment in all this?
        • No divine right of kings
        • Increasing public literacy
        • Reason, natural rights, tradition and institutions
      • What three major problems lay out of the control of anyone?
        • Bad harvests- increased price of bread
          • Riots
        • Increasing demands for political participation and governmental reform throughout the West set standard for French
          • Poland, America, Dutch Republic, Austrian Netherlands
    • The Tennis Court Oath
      • How long had it been since the Estates General had last met?
        • 174 Years
      • What were the Three Estates?
        • Third Estate
          • Commoners, Peasantry, Bourgeoisie
        • Second Estate
          • Nobility
        • First Estate
          • Clergy
      • Cahiers de doleance
        • Lists of grievances from all classes of people (mostly bourgeoisie?
        • translation: notebooks of grievances
      • What was the goal of the third estate’s representatives?
        • Address the long lists of complaints from the Cahiers
      • Versailles
        • Meeting place for Estates General
      • What was the difference between voting by head and voting by order?
        • Voting by head is when each person’s vote is counted and voting by order is when each estate gets a single vote
        • Who wanted which, and why?
          • Bourgeoisie wanted by head and clergy and nobility wanted by order. 1st and 2nd estate always voted together, so in order to even the vote, the 3rd estate wanted by head
      • National Assembly
        • Create legislation of France
      • What were the terms of the Tennis Court Oath?
        • National Assembly cannot disband without creating France’s Constitution
      • How did the third estate “win the first round?”
        • Forced king to allow count by head
    • Storming the Bastille
      • Who supported the National Assembly?
        • Parisian Populace
        • French Peasantry
      • July 14, 1789, Bastille Day
        • Led by the Marquis de Lafayette
      • What sparked the storming of the Bastille?
        • Dismissal of Jacques Necker, Louis’ popular finance minister
      • How did events in Paris affect the rest of France in the summer of 1789?
        • Peasant revolts and uprisings throughout France
        • The Great Fear
          • Panicked nobles fled France and became émigrés (exiles)
      • What were the demands of the peasantry?
        • More rights
        • Lower bread prices
        • Not get attacked by the official army of France
    • The End of the Old Order
      • What happened on August 4?
        • Nobles relinquished their traditional rights and privileges
        • “The end of feudalism”
      • What reforms did the National Assembly make first?
        • End of serfdom
        • Special taxation rights
        • Privileged access to official posts
      • Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
        • August 26, 1789
        • Included Enlightenment ideas and phrases similar to those in the American Declaration of Independence
      • How did the National Assembly do at equalizing rights for women?
        • Not too good
        • “Only men gained the full measure of new social and political rights.”
      • What role did women play in October, 1789?
        • Declaration of the Rights of Women
          • “Perpetual male tyranny”
        • October 5 and 6 March to Versailles
          • Surrounded Versailles and took King and family prisoner
          • Brought them back to Paris
    • The Constitutional Monarchy: Establishing a New Order
      • What was meant by “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”?
        • Liberty
          • Freedom from arbitrary authority and freedom of speech, press, etc.
          • Not freedom of religion
        • Equality
          • Equal treatment under law and equal economic opportunity
        • Fraternity
          • Comradeship as citizens of the nation
      • How did the National Assembly work to streamline the French government?
        • Decentralized government
          • 83 new provinces administered by locally elected officials
        • Judicial system changed
          • New civil and criminal courts with elected judges
          • Uniform taxes on land and trade/industry
        • New paper money called assignats-> Church land
      • Civil Constitution of the Clergy
        • What did the National Assembly do to the Catholic Church?
          • Government officials confiscated and sold Church Property
          • Dissolved all convents and monasteries
          • Prohibited the taking of religious vows
            • People elected clergy
            • Oath of allegiance
              • Half the clergy of France refused to take this oath
              • “Nonjuring” clergy
        • What effect did this have on the strength of the National Assembly?
          • Created long-lasting division in France’s Catholic population
          • Lost the support of many French citizens who were loyal to the old church and priests
      • The King Discredited
        • What did Louis XVI’s flight represent to the people of France?
          • He became a traitor
        • Legislative Assembly
          • National Assembly with new representatives under new rules
        • What were the accomplishments of the National Assembly?
          • A written constitution more important than monarch
          • Church lost its independence
          • Nobles forfeited rights
          • 3rd Estate gained equality
          • Woman had a louder voice
        • If the revolution ended in October, 1791, would it have been successful?
          • “France now boasted am more democratic electoral system than England or the United States”
          • “In only two years, and with relatively little bloodshed, France had been made over”
      • Reactions Outside France
        • Who supported the Revolution and why? And on the other side?
          • Supported by Elites not in government or power
            • “Writers and reformers”
            • Activists
            • For it because they were idealists and liked the Enlightenment ideas emphasized in it
          • Against the Revolution were governments
            • Monarchs
            • Statesmen/Nobles
            • Against it because it might inspire peasantry to force Nobles and Monarchy give up power in their country
    • To the Radical Republic and Back
        • Who was unhappy with the revolution so far and why?
          • Royal family, aristocracy, clergy
            • Wanted their traditional positions back
        • Sans-culottes
          • The most politically active commoners, named for the long pants they wore rather than the knee-high breeches of the elites
          • “Citizen and Citizeness”
        • The Paris Commune
          • Sans-culottes gained power over the municipal government of Paris
            • Called it the Paris Commune
        • The Jacobin Club
          • The more radical bourgeoisie allied themselves with the sans-culottes and formed clubs to debate and make political plans
          • The Jacobin Club became the most powerful of these clubs
      • War and the Breakdown of Order
        • Who wanted war and why?
          • Austria and Prussia in order to stop the spread of revolution into their lands
          • Royal Family believed that a French victory would enhance the standing of the monarch, and a defeat could help restore the Old Regime and Royal power
          • Radicals believe that the war would expose the inefficiency and disloyalty of the King
        • What political results did the initial success of Prussia and Austria have?
          • Panic in Paris
            • Prussian commander intends to rescue the royal family
            • Louis and Marie Antoinette are accused of being in treasonable communication with the enemy.
              • Royal Family imprisoned by Legislative Assembly
            • New, more radical Constitution
        • Georges-Jacques Danton
            • Jacobin leader, orator and organizer
              • Gathered recruits for the army to bring them to the front
        • Jean-Paul Marat (Radical Journalist)
          • Spread the rumor that the nonjuring clergy and remaining nobles planned to kill the families of the new recruits going to the front
          • What were the results of his propaganda?
            • Thousands of Nobles and Clergy in the prisons of Paris were massacred during the weeks of September 1792.
        • National Convention
          • Republicans won- favored elimination of the monarchy and creation of French republic
          • Ruled for three years
      • Radical Republicans Struggle for Power
        • Girondins- Faction of the Jacobin Club from Bordeaux
          • What moved the Girondins from “left” to “right”?
            • In Legislative Assembly, the Girondins were the most powerful and radical faction. They sat on the left of the Speaker
            • In National Convention, they were on the right as the more conservative faction
        • Jacobins from Paris also called The Mountain
        • September 22, 1792
          • France is declared a Republic
        • What was good about the guillotine?
          • More efficient and humane
        • What was the international reaction to the killing of Louis XVI?
          • Horror
          • Scared royals throughout Europe
            • Britain, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Naples, Austria, and Prussia joined in coalition against France
        • Which French people disliked the new Republic?
          • Peasants
            • Uprisings and rebellion in 60 provinces.
            • Lyons and Toulon especially important in revolt- invited foreign soldier s to come fight against the republic
      • The Terror
        • Who controlled the Paris Commune? What did they want from the Revolution?
          • Controlled by sans-culottes and they wanted to carry the Revolution even further towards democracy
          • June 2, 1793- execution of the Girondin leaders
          • Law of Maximum
            • Control the prices of bread, flour, and other essentials
        • Committee of Public Safety
          • 12 members with 2 main tasks
            • Secure the Republic against enemies, internal and external
            • Carry out radical republican program
            • “dictatorial powers”
        • Maximilien Robespierre (1785-1794)
          • Head of Paris Jacobin Club
          • Influenced by Rosseau
          • Ideal of “a Virtuous Republic”
        • Reign of Terror
          • Members of the Committee of Public Safety sought out and executed those suspected of being “counterrevolutionaries”
            • Girondins
            • Jean-Sylvain Billy (leader of the Tennis Court Oath)
            • Olympe de Gouges (Declaration of the Rights of Women) and Manon Roland
        • Levée en masse
          • All able-bodied men, women, and children were trained and brought to the front as soldiers and nurses/workers
        • How was the French army able to defeat its enemies?
          • Intense Patriotism
          • Officer Corps. Open to leadership by talent
          • Massive mobilization of men and materials
      • The Republic of Virtue
        • According to Robespierre, who got in the way of the Republic?
          • Catholic Church
            • Prosecuted nonjuring clergy and pressured allied jury to give up their vocation.
        • Cult of Reason
          • Radicals hoped this would be a way to replace traditional Christian rituals
          • Churches became “temples of reason”
        • How did the Republic attack the Church?
          • Took rules for governing family life and education
          • Marriage became controlled by government rather than Church
          • New rules for divorce
          • Births registered at city halls
          • Women could sue for equal inheritence
          • Free primary schooling for girls and boys and state-run secondary schooling
        • Did the Jacobins do any better than anyone else in granting rights to women?
          • Gave them more legal rights, but rejected women’s participation in government and outlawed all associations concerning politics
        • How did the Republic promote itself?
          • “Figure of liberty” replaced royal symbols on coins, statues, etc,
          • Liberty trees planted throughout France
          • Women adopted the styles of ancient Greece, reflecting objection to traditional social order
          • Songs, Plays, and Paintings
          • Festivals
          • “Citizen” and “Citizeness”
          • Pamphlets with core Republic Principles
      • The Revolution Spreads Outside of France
        • What made foreign leaders dislike the revolutionary government?
          • Created Uprising and revolutions in other countries
        • Who was inspired by the French Revolution?
          • Revolutions
            • Holland, Switzerland, and Italy, St. Domingue (Haiti)
            • Also led to abolishing of slavery in France
          • Uprisings
            • Poland and Ireland
      • Resistance to the Republic Rises
        • Who resisted the Republic?
          • Local officials who had fallen out of favor with the Jacobins, Girondin sympathizers, underground members of the nonjuring clergy
          • Remaining loyalists, conservative and loyal Catholic peasants, and opponents of military conscriptions
        • Thermidorian Reaction- July 27, 1794
          • National Convention overthrew Robespierre and executed him
          • On Revolutionary calendar, it was the 9th of Thermidor.
      • Reaction: The “White” Terror and the Directory
        • In what ways was the constitution of 1795 reactionary? (Rather than revolutionary.)
          • Rebelled against the beliefs of the Jacobins
            • Middle and Upper class became more shameless and brazon
            • Lower class turned back to Catholic Church
            • New constitution rules
              • Right to vote for members of legislature was limited to wealthy property owners
              • Executive functions were placed in the hand of 5 directors, the Directory
        • The Directory
          • Men of the Directory failed to stop wars
          • Government finances dropped further
          • Increase in crime
          • Turned against the sans-culottes
        • What made “the situation ripe for the arrival of a strongman?”
          • Needed someone to take control, stop the fighting and crime, and reorganize the country into a powerful force
      • Napoleon Bonaparte
        • Napoleon’s Rise to Power
          • What established Napoleon’s reputation as a general?
            • Successes in Italian Campaign
              • Treaty of Camp Formio with Austria
              • French extension into Cisalpine Republic
          • How did Napoleon “spin” the expedition to Egypt?
            • Emphasized scientific research and successful victories rather than overall loss
          • Coup d’état
            • Great Britain, Austria, and Russia formed coalition against France
              • Napoleon conspired with Abbe Sieyes, one of the members of the Directory to take control of France.
        • Napoleon Consolidates Control
          • How did Napoleon outwit his fellow conspirators?
            • Made himself first consul and limited the power of second and third consuls as well as other elected legislative bodies
            • Placed each of the provinces under the care of an agent loyal to him
          • What did Napoleon do to win the support of large portions of the French population?
            • Peasantry
              • End of Serfdom and feudal privileges
              • Transfers of property of before the Revolution
            • Bourgeoisie
              • Affirming property rights and equality before law
            • Aristocracy
              • Allowed back almost all the émigrés
            • Elite
              • Admired his involvement in science
            • Secret Police
              • Suppressed independent political organizations, newspapers, and art
            • Legion of Honor
              • Position for those most loyal to him
          • The Concordat of 1801
            • Made peace with the Pope and Catholic Church after 10 year struggle
            • Declared Catholicism the majority religion of France
              • Also ensured freedom for Protestants and Jews
      • Reforming France
        • Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoleon of 1804
          • In what ways was the Code good? Bad?
            • Good
              • Guaranteed legal equality, careers open for talent, and paternal authority over women, children, and property
              • Forbid Strikes and Trade Unions
            • Bad
              • Forbid Strikes and Trade Unions
              • Gave power over property and the family to men and left married women legally and economically dependent on their husbands.
              • Limited rights to divorce for women
        • How did Napoleon attack the financial problems of France?
          • Established the Bank of France
          • Program of Public Works
          • Supported certain industries
          • Established price controls
      • Creating the Empire
        • What were the problems with Napoleon’s seemingly successful reign in 1802?
          • Napoleon craved public recognition and legitimacy
            • Made himself a public figure- Emperor in 1804
          • He was a warrior-figure, his power relied on his military strength
        • Why was it important that Napoleon crowned himself?
          • Showed his self-dependence
        • Was Napoleon right when he said, “only conquest can maintain me”?
          • He gained power through military strength, only continuing victory could keep him in power
      • War and Conquest
        • 1804- Back to War with England
        • Battle of Trafalgar
          • Combined French and Spanish against English led by Nelson
          • Nelson killed, but English fleet decimated the French and Spanish fleets
        • What were the keys to Napoleon’s success in land-based military campaigns?
          • Fast, independent units
          • Talented officer corps
          • Loyalty
          • Dividing enemy forces
        • Battle of Austerlitz
          • December 1805- Against Prussia
            • Virtually obliterated Prussian forces
        • Battle of Friedland
          • 1807- Defeated Russian forces
            • Treaties of Tilsit- July 1807
            • Left Russia as a junior partner to France
        • The Continental System- Continent wide blockade against British Ships in order to damage Britain’s economy
          • How did this system backfire?
            • Britain responded with new regulations that amount to its own blockade on shipping to continental ports
            • Now affected whole of Europe
          • What reforms did Napoleon put in place in conquered lands?
            • All of France’s laws and institutions
            • Installed French controlled governments
              • Usually put family in as Monarchs of these areas
          • Was he an enlightened emperor?
            • Yes
              • Constitutional Government
              • Equaltiy before law
              • Careers open to talent
              • Civil Code
              • Open to all religions
              • Instituted Public Support
                • Schools, Infrastructure
            • No
              • Focused on Military Power
              • Increased Tax Reforms
              • Required Conscription
        • The Impact Overseas
          • How did Napoleon influence independence movements in Central and South America?
            • Spanish colonies in Central and South America rebelled after Napoleon overthrew the Spanish King and put his brother on the throne
            • These new independent colonies adopted Napoleonic Code
              • Also colonies throughout Asia and America reformed their government to the Napoleonic Code
          • How did England react to Napoleon’s success on the continent of Europe?
            • War of 1812 with the United States, over Canadian colonies
            • Tighten control over England’s colonies and areas of influence
              • Took over French and Dutch colonies in Africa, Asia and America.
              • Increased trade in South Africa
        • Decline and Fall
          • What were the three weaknesses of Napoleon’s empire?
            • Flawed Policies
              • The Continental System
                • Weakened French controlled ports that relied on trade
                • Stiffened opposition against Napoleon and failed to weaken England
            • Resistance to his rule
              • Rebellion in Spain after Joseph was put on the throne
                • Madrid Rebellion
            • Overextensions of his military reach
              • Dream of ruling all of Europe caused him to overestimate his power
          • How did Napoleon react to rebellions?
            • Military Force- brutal and bloody executions
          • Duke of Wellington
            • British Commander, smuggled supplies and troops to resistance in Spain
          • How did the Spanish resist Napoleon successfully?
            • Hit-and-run guerrilla tactics
          • Russian campaign of 1812
            • Russians rebelled against French
            • Battle at Borodino one of the most bloody battles of the nineteenth century
              • Over 80,000 casualties
              • Russia withdrew, but the army was not defeated
            • September, 1812, Napoleon’s Grand Army entered Moscow, where Tzar Alexander refused to surrender
            • Army caught by winter on the way back to France
              • Many froze, starved, died of disease, or were killed by Russian Cossacks
          • Battle of Leipzig- October 1813
            • Allied European coalition defeat Napoleon
          • Island of Elba- 1814
            • Allies entered Paris and exiled Napoleon to the Island of Elba
          • Battle of Waterloo- June 1815
            • Allies distracted, Napoleon snuck back into France
            • Raised another army from the remains of his supporters
            • Napoleon defeated at Battle of Waterloo in Belgium by allied Prussian and British forces
              • Exiled to St. Helena
                • Not as nice as Elba


Reading Guide: Chapter 17
The Industrial Revolution

  • The Industrial Revolution Begins
      • For whom was the Industrial Revolution good? And for whom was it bad?
        • Bourgeoisie and middle-class benefited
        • Workers/lower class worst
      • What were the major changes in Britain during the revolution?
        • Population doubled in England
          • Over half lived in cities
        • Factories/machines
          • Fast and cheap production
          • End of cottage industry
        • Railroads
          • Throughout country
      • Why don’t we all drive steam-powered tricycles?
        • Usage of new resources
          • Coal/steel made travel more efficient
    • A Booming Commercial Economy in the West
      • What made China less likely to undergo an industrial or commercial revolution?
        • Difference in culture
          • In China, merchants were low in social status, less people interested in economy
          • In England, development of capitalism and focus on wealth as power allowed for creation of new commercial concepts
    • Global Connections
      • Why was China uninterested in British requests to trade?
        • Confucianist social order
        • Commerce in China was introverted, they saw no need for European products
    • Britain’s Unique Set of Advantages
      • What political factors contributed to England’s success?
        • Amount of exports
        • Leading colonial power
      • What made England different from other stable, wealthy, European countries?
        • Because it is an island, England had greatest access to water transportation and trade, which is much faster than overland trade.
        • Canal systems within country
      • Raw Materials
        • Coal, iron, and cotton
      • Labor
        • Don’t forget about the Enclosure Acts!
          • Labor increased in cities as peasants were forced off their farms by the new enclosures
      • Capital
        • Britain was already one of the most wealthy European countries
        • It had a national banking system that allowed it to control all wealth
        • No import tax, stable and uniform monetary system, and an economically inclined government
      • What cultural factors contributed to England’s success?
        • Entrepreneurship was commonly accepted in England
    • New Markets, Machines, and Power
      • The Rising Demand for Goods
        • How did population growth and colonization affect demand?
          • Supply and demand; the more people, the more products are needed
        • What role did machines and their inventors play?
          • Allow for faster, cheaper production
        • What role did entrepreneurs play?
          • The in between of production and people, shop owners, factory owners, etc
      • Cotton Leads the Way
        • Cotton was 40% of British exports
        • 1733, John Kay, Flying Shuttle
        • 1760s, James Hargreaves, Spinning Jenny
        • 1784, Edmund Cartwright, Power Loom
        • 1793, Eli Whitney, Cotton Gin
      • Iron: New Processes Transform Production
        • Military, civilian, and industrial use
        • 1708, Abraham Darby, smelting with coal
      • The Steam Engine and the Factory System
        • Thomas Newcomen, Steam Engine
        • 1765, James Watt, Steam Engine (Matthew Boulton, entrepreneur)
        • What did the introduction of the steam engine do to industrial processes?
          • Drove the other inventions of the industrial revolution
        • Division of Labor
          • The men get the administration jobs, the women and children get the menial labor
      • Coal: Fueling the Revolution
        • If coal was replaced by petroleum products, should we assume that petroleum will also be replaced?
          • Petroleum replaced coal because it was more efficient, so if we find something more efficient, it will be replaced
      • Railroads: Carrying Industrialization Across the Land
        • 1830, George Stephenson, “The Rocket” Railroad
          • 16mph
          • started serious investments in railroads
        • What did railroads change about the world?
          • Fast and reliable transportation could move heavy freight with ease
        • How were railroads symbolic of the Industrial Revolution—both good and bad sides of it?
          • Created new jobs
          • Increased demand for industrial rev products (iron, coal, etc)
          • Destroyed neighborhoods
          • Many investments failed
      • Britain’s Triumph: The Crystal Palace Exhibition (1851)
        • How was the Crystal Palace a symbol of British advancement over the rest of the world?
          • People of all countries came to see it
          • Example of all the improvement of industrial age
            • Glass, iron, labor force, etc.
            • “an architectural masterpiece and a jewel of mass production”