Review For The Final Exam

Please add any ID's, short answer questions answers, DBQ ideas, or essay ideas that will be beneficial to study for the Modern Euro final. thanks Alex

It would be best if everything stayed organized, so go in order of the list. If you don't know a term, write it down and just skip it, that way we get all of them because someone else can fill it in. Great idea Alex - Ariel

Also, if you accidentally save over someone's work, go to the recent changes in the top left and find what they just added so you can redo it in the latest addition of the page. That way no one's work will be lost! The discussion is helpful for communicating editing goofs as well.


Chapter 14

Age of reason: time when the philosophes started realizing enlightenment ideas. Started going away from the “old view” ex. Discovery that the world was not flat.
Galileo: Italian astronomer, physicist, and mathematician involved in the scientific revolution. His ideas of using mathematical terms to describe the universe caused conflict between him and the catholic church. He disproved the physics of Aristotle and made the telescope, which disproved the church’s theories. (31)
The old view: old beliefs based on the ideas of Aristotle (geocentrism, etc.) Perpetuated by the church, and disproved by the philisophes and the scientists of the enlightenment and scientific revolution.
Reformation: was the questioning of the authority of the church change from old views to new, also Martin Luther splitting Protestants from Catholics.
Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish clergyman an astrologer and mathematician. Came up with the idea that the earth was not the center of the universe. Concluded the earth moved in perfect, "divine" circles around the sun and that the earth turned on its axis. Provided inspiration for Galileo, Newton, Kepler, etc.
Brahe: Danish aristocrat and astronomer . took detailed measurements of the stars . provided the measurements to prove theories. He discovered a new star in 1572 and a comet in 1577. Mistakenly concluded that some planets revolved around the sun, which itself moved around the earth.
Kepler: Brahe's assistant. supported the heliocentric idea which was that the planets moved in ellipses around the sun, velocity varied with distance around the sun and the physical relationship between planets can be explained mathematically. Three laws of planetary motion. (31)
Newton: three laws of motion: inertia, acceleration, and for every action there’s a reaction. Discovered gravity. Created calculus. Extremely important and beneficial to the scientific revolution. Armed to go out and explain the universe (31)
Descartes: mathematician, physicist, and metaphysical philosopher. “ I think therefore I am” “Cognito ergo sum” he revolutionized human knowledge through his skepticism and laid foundation for philosophy and mathematics. Defended abstract deductive reasoning. Believed in two kinds of reality, 1) mind, or subjective thinking and experiencing 2) body, or objective physical matter. Did not challenge church as forcefully as Galileo but gave courage to other scientific revolutionists to voice their opinions. Believed that everything for which one did not have definite proof should be challenged.
Salons: meetings for/ about the enlightenment talked about enlightened ideas and women were allowed to run salons and become involved in the discussions toward the enlightenment. Scientists frequently shared new findings at these meetings. Art, literature, and politics were also topics often discussed.
Royal Societies: these government established organizations helped to furnish laboratories, publish new scientific research and discoveries, bring discussion of ideas, and honor scientific achievement. the back up of scientists with support from royal families. Allowed for the growth of scientific communities
Enlightenment: the path toward enlightened human understanding. Use human power of reason and logic to understand both the natural world and people's interactions with one another. Political, mathematical, and logical progression.
Locke: caused the change of schooling to focus on molding from childhood to adulthood. No man has the right to harm any other man’s “life, liberty, or property” . applied scientific thinking to human psychology. Rejected the notion that human beings were born with innate ideas or that revelation was a reliable source of truth. He argued what we become depends solely on our experiences.
Laissez-Faire (economics): favored free trade and enterprise. Means “let do” in French. It is generally understood to be a doctrine that maintains that private initiative and production are best allowed to be free of economic interventionism and taxation by the state beyond what is necessary to maintain individual liberty, peace, security, and property rights
Voltaire: best represented the philosophes. Became idol of French intellectuals in his 20’s. popularized newton’s and locke’s ideas. Philosopher. Wrote Candide. Satire. He idealized England because it allowed greater individual freedom, religious differences, and political reform than most other countries.
Progress: was the moving forward of enlightened ideas during the scientific revolution
Philosophe: Enlightenment thinkers taking on more philosophical questions and they were mostly noble and or middle class (Locke, Voltaire, etc.). Tended to apply, extend, or propagandize other's ideas rather than their own.
Dennis Diderot: editor of the encyclopedia published in 1751. Believed in idea that all information should be easily accessible (to experts) from one book but society said dangerous for women to be educated and that it was too accessible
Rousseau: built on John Locke’s work aka the idea of “life, liberty, and property” believed government should never take those rights away from the people. Believed that if the government did violate these rights then the people should overthrow the government, like in the Glorious Revolution by the English. Offered a solution to the conflict between individual feedom and social restrictions. Believed that people themselves should make the laws.
Enlightened Absolutism: rulers became influenced by the enlightenment (enlightened monarchs) ex. Catherine the great and Peter the Great though did not fully become enlightened.. but close
Individualism: importance of individual and self reliance and liberty. One of the cornerstones of the Enlightenment, a philosophy stressing the recognition of every person as a valuable individual with inalienable, inborn rights.
Kant: Kant theorized that all humans are born with innate “experiences” that then reflect onto the world, giving them a perspective. Thus, since no one actually knows what other people see, the idea of “reasoning” is not valid. Kant’s philosophies applied the brakes to the Enlightenment, effectively denouncing reason as an invalid approach to thought. Kant defines enlightenment as "leaving your self-caused immaturity."

Chapter 15

Enlightened Absolutism: the idea that a monarchy or ruler can rule with polocies more aligned with enlightenment thinking.
Peter the Great: tsar of Russia. Modernized their government/forced westernization. (ex. Forced western dress) established Russia as dominant power. Standardization of language. Opening of trade. Required service of nobles in army and bureaucracy. Defeated Sweden.
Catherine the Great (r. 1762-1796): came up with idea of enlightened absolutism… but was never fully enlightened. (War got in way of her enlightenment) She desired land à powerà money. Relaxed constraints on the press, confiscated church land, and formed new schools. She provoked the war vs. Ottoman empire which was the downfall of her being enlightened. (60)
Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780): Queen of Austria, she dragged her succession on for eight years with the help of the Hungarian Arms. She went ino conflict against Frederick who challenged her authority.
Maria Theresa: Held off Hungarian and Prussian forces and protected Austria's land. War of Austrian Succession.
7 Years War (1756-1763): Europe fends off Frederick William I and Prussia. France, Austria, Sweden and Russia fight off Prussia and Great Britain. Ended in the Division of Poland in 1795
18th Century Warfare: modern armies & tactics, focused on maintining land, new guns, naval battles. Armies mirrored the bureaucratic governments they served. Soldiers were now paid as full-time servants of the state.
Louis XIV: Built up a large army, successful early in reign, economy grows, towards end creates expensive wars, begins depeleting money
Louis XV (r. 1715-1774): Was not as successful and money keeps being used, creation of parlements, unsuccessful reforms, isolation of crown
Louis XVI (r. 1774-1792): King during F.R., does not try to reform as much as he should, becomes under control of bourgeouisie, eventually executed in the people's strive for a new constitution and government. (there are many more details that can be added here but that's a quick overview)
Colonialism: France and Britain set up and fight over colonies, trade across Atlantic, Triangle of Trade
Slave Trade: slaves traded for manafactures goods, creates bloody internal wars.
Triangular Trade: connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Europe sent gun, ammo, and alcohol to Africa, which sent slaves to the Americas. The Americas sent sugar, tobacco, and molasses to Europe.
Middle Passage: largest slave trade route. A two-month journey that went from the African coast to the Americas. death, disease, and suicide were common
Olauda Equiano: A slave. Wrote about the Middle Passage.
Agricultural Revolution: moving away from Old Methods to New Methods: new crops (potato) and techiques, surplus, new tools, enclosure. Subsistence farming became surplus farming.
Enclosure: marking off land to own privately, small independent farmers lost land to bigger owners. The land was then used for commercial farming.
Cottage Industry: family run businesses of producing manafactured goods, moving away from agriculture, entire families work. entrepreneurs provided raw materials and equipment to peasants who would work from their homes to make the finished product.
Population Growth: better food, less plague, general prosperity, better transportation of resources, sanitation, everything cheaper
Bourgeoisie: urban middle class, education, art, want priveledges of aristocracy, form own culture. Their wealth wouldn't earn them acceptance into the aristocracy because true nobility derived from birth. They distanced themselves from commoners because of their wealth.
Modern Novels: analyze human personality, emotion and psychology, appealed to women. Reflected the values of the bourgeoisie. middle class tastes, realistic social situations, conveyed current ideas, manners, news, and info.
American Revolution: became a globe-spanning conflict that ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain had agreed to recognize American independence. voiced Enlightenment ideas, voiced fundamental rights, Declaration of Independence, which was based off of the ideas of John Locke,"life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

Chapter 16

"nation" "citizen" "general all": terms that were the influence of the Enlightenment.
Tennis Court Oath: the agreement was that the National Assembly would not end until France had a constitution.
Estates General: Made up of the 1st Estate (clergymen), 2nd Estate (noblemen/ aristocracy), and the 3rd Estate, (bourgeousie and commoners/peasants). They put to vote on pressing matters to do with the state.
Cahiers de Doleance: The list of grievances from all classes of people.
National Assembly: The 3rd Estate joined by some clergymen that took action and called themselves the National Assembly. They invited the first two estates to join it in enacting a legislation, but most declined.
Storming the Bastille: July 14th, 1789 - Bastille Day. riotous crowds of men and women searching for arms marched on the Bastille, which symbolized the old order. The Bastille, representing the old feudal regime of the past, falls because of the corruption within and the heroic power of the outraged people fighting under the revolutionary banner of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. This showed that under pressure, royal authority begins to crumble. France's day of Independence. What sparked this revolution was the rumors of the military being called to Versailles, they believed that the king meant to use force against them. Also Louis XVI dismissed Jacques Necker, his finance minister, who they saw as an ally.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: On August 26th, the National Assembly combined Enlightenment ideals and phrases similar to those of the American Declaration of Independence, and created their own document. Equality, liberty, security, and reisistance to oppression. Supreme authority rested with the nation as a whole, not the monarchy. It also proclaimed freedom from arbitrary arrest, freedom of opinion/religion, and freedom of the press.
Declaration of the Rights of Women: Only men gained the full measure of the new social and political rights. Many women objected to this limitation, and they organized groupds that formed pamphlets and writing petitions. Olympe de Gouges, a woman write who supported the revolution, wrote "The Declaration of the Rights of Women". Saying that men and women should have the same rights, but these ideas fell on deaf ears.
Constitutional Monarchy: The central government was transformed into a constitutional monarchy. The National Assembly served as its legislature, and the kind remained its chief executive officer. The bourgeoisie held the most power. To undermine old loyalties and the power of the provincial nobility, the National Assembly created new parlements, each equal in size and administrated by locally elected assemblies and officials. The National Assembly took the judicial system out of the hands of the 1st and 2nd Estates. Old taxation was replaced by uniform taxes on land and the profits of trade and industry. To pay for its expenditures, the National Assembly issued what amounted to paper money called assignats. To back up the assignats, pay off the debt, and at the same time bring the church under governmental control, government officials confiscated and sold church property.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Liberty; meaning freedom from arbitrary authority, freedom of speech, press, conscience, assembly and proffesion. Equality; equal treatment under the law and in economic opportunity (for men). Fraternity; comradeship as citizens of the nation.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy: All members of the clergy were required to take an oath of allegiance inorder to perform their functions and draw their salaries. This created a long lasting division among France's Catholic population, for many of the bishops refused to take the oath. The Revolution would lose alot of support over the loyalty to the church and to their local priests (religion). The election of priests, by everyone, state pays for salaries.
Sans-Culottes: The most politically active became known as the sans-culottes because they wore pants instead of teh fashionable kneww breeches of the elites. They addressed eachother as Citizen or Citizeness, and they gained control over the municipal government of Paris (the Commune).
National Convention: Elections held amid this hysteria, republicans favoring the elimination of the monarchy all together won a sweeping vote. This convention ruled France for the next three years, taking the Revolution down a new, more radical road.
Great Fear: The storming of the Bastille affected the rest of France as well. The peasants revolted against their landlords, burning tax rolls, as well as attacking manors and rejecting the traditional rights of the noble landowners, they also demanded that they need not pay taxes towards the landowners. These revolts resulted in the spreading of rumors that bands and bigands, that were made up of noblemen, were loose out in the countryside. These rumors resulted in the slaughtering of noblemen, which resulted in many noblemen to flee the country in fear of their lives, and they became known as emigres(exiles).
Girodins: From the vicinity of Bordeaux in the departement of Gironde, they had once been the most powerful and radical function of the Legislative Assembly. Because they sat on teh speakers left they had come to be known as "the Left". In the new National Convention, they found themselves on the Right as the more conservative function. They were moved from left to right because they no longer were the most radical, the Jacobins now sat on the left.
Jacobins: The leadership for this urban populace fell into the hands of the radical members of the bourgeoisie, who allied themselves with the sans-culottes and favored the overthrow of the monarchy and extension fo the Revolution. This became the most important of the political organizations, and overtime militant radicals gained strength with the organization. The Jacobins were called "the Mountain" because they occupied the highest seats in the convention hall.
Committee of Public Safety: Inorder to secure the Republicans against its enemies, both internal and external, they voted for the expulsion and arrest of the chief competitors of the Jacobins, the Girondin leaders. This was enabled inorder for the radical republican program to continue.
Robespierre: Maximilien Robespierre lead the committee under a firm, idealogical, gifted and feared leadership. He was once a lawyer, elected into the Estates General, and he quickly rose up in rank in the Jacobin Club in Paris. He was bent on the creation of a virtuous republic. He and fellow committee members struggled to both appease and control the unpredictable, threatening sans-culottes.
Reign of Terror: Robespierre wanted to eliminate internal enemies by arresting and or executing them. It was anyone who was suspected of being counter-revolutionaries. Even those who had once supported or helped fight for the Revolution would be subjected to execution. All Girondins were executed, for their views had fallen out of favor. Jean-Sylvain Bailly, leader of the Tennis Cout Oath, and Olympe de Gouges, a feminist, were both executed. Though many people became victims of arbitrary justice, officials used the Terror most often where real threats arose, regions in revolt and vulnerable areas near France's borders.
Thermidorian Reaction: Most people no longer saw the need for the terror, yet it only intensified. When the influential Danton counseled moderation, Robespierre sent him and his most prominent followers to the guillotine. No one felt safe. On July 27th, 1794 (Thermidore, July) the convention overthrew Robespierre. In an ironic ending, the Jacobin leader died by the guillotine, the same device he had killed with so many others.
White Terror: This was a reaction to the revolution, because the revolution was presented by the radicals, and they were trying to stop the radical revolutionaries. This was the citizens of France, rounding up the leaders of the radical Jacobins and sending them to the guillotine.
The Directory: Five men of reasonable competence replaced the National Convention. But they failed to restore trabquility. They tried to balance threats from the royalists on the right and the Jacobins on the left. They turned against the sans-culottes by removing price controls and ahd to be saved by the governmental forces when the sans-culottes stormed the convention. They tried to please everyone, but ended up pleasing nobody.
Napoleon Bonaparte: France was in a bad state, and needed someone who could direct the country, bring order at home and peace abroad. This was the perfect opportunity for Napoleon to gain power. He was a military genius, he was charismatic and inspiring. His success in Italy established his reputation as a general. The Coup d'etat was when two others along with Napoleon conspired with him to overthrow the directory, they believed they could control Napoleon, but he outsmarted them. Napoleon created a new short and obscure constitution, which was accepted by the Legislatures and by a plebiscite(vote), overwhelmingly France approved of the constitution. He creates the 1st cousel, out of 3 counsels, the first one more equal than the others. He appoints his friends as prefects of 83 departments, the would do anything Napoleon asked them, for he gave them their power. He was able to get the majorities vote by abolishing serfdom and feudal rights. Becomes Emperor of France.
The Concordat: 1801, Catholicism becomes the official religion of France, making peace with the pope. Napoleon still gave freedom for Protestants and rights for Jews. The clergy was paid by the state, and had to take an oath of allegience but not all of the churches land was returned to them from when it was taken away during the French Rev.
Napoleonic Code: Outlines new rights and laws (creates a legal code). Marriage, property, crime etc.(family property belonged to the husband, and equality before the law). Women's rights were defeated (no divorce), and radical requests were denied.
Battle of Trafalgar: 1805, Naval battle against the English (Admiral Nelson). Napoleon trying to get his fleet up near England, so as to fight England. This was a pivotal battle for England. England's navy is undefeatable. This shows Napoleon that if he wants to defeat England he must do it so on land.
Battle of Austerlitz: When Napoleon crushed Austria and Russia, but then Prussia invaded.
Emperor Napoleon: Self appointed emperor who had need for conquests, believing that conquests made him who he was. "My domination will not survive the day when I cease to be strong, and therefore feared."
Continental System: Napoleon tried to start a trade embargo on Great Britain, persuading everyone under his control to stop trading with Britain. This was a great theory, but it wouldnt work because Endland was the biggest trading system, items were more expensive and there was a worse source of products/ selection. Everyone ignored it except France itself. France found alternatives to substitute what they didnt have. Russia told Napoleon that they didnt want to participate, and Napoleon uses this as an excuse to wage war against them.
Russian Campaign of 1812: Napoleon planned to attack Russia with a huge army in the summer (600,000, wearing only summertime uniforms), Napoleon planned to stay the winter in Moscow, and then return home. Scorched Earth policy by Russia, was that before Napoleon would advance to a town or bridge, Russians would burn them and retreat, so that Napoleon couldnt use them to his advantage. Napoleon thinks that he is winning when he sees that the Russians are retreating, but they have no food to gather and must send for a provision train, which Russia cuts off. Plus there is a small civil war within the army, the Spanish soldiers attacking the army and deserting. They have one war with Russia, who loses. When they reach Moscow, its on fire, and they are forced to return home. Many died from the cold winter.
Battle of Leipzig: 1813, after Russia, Napoleon is defeated and exiled to Elba.
Elba: Where Napoleon is exiled the first time. Which he escapes in 1815.
Battle of Waterloo: England, Prussia and Austria against France (Waterloo is in Belgium). Wellington (British general) defeats Napoleon, who is exiled to St. Helena, where he dies of stomach cancer (?).

Chapter 17

Industrial Revolution: (1780-1850) Time period when machines and factories were replacing agriculture and handicrafts as the basis of the traditional economy.
Cotton: the "flying shuttle" invented by John Kay, the water frame, and the power loom all turned cotton into cloth much more efficiently than spinning wheels and handlooms
Iron: until the IR, iron makers only knew how to smelt iron with charcoal from wood. Abraham Darby discovered how to smelt iron with coal in a blast furnace (1708), which enabled production to double in the years following
Steam: steam engine was the IR's most important technological advance. They could pump water out of coal mines, and drive other new machines such as mills and looms. Steam engine symbolized the industrial age
Coal: fueled the IR. Coal was used for steam engines, iron making, to heat homes, and to develop roads, canals, and rails necessary to transport goods
Entrepreneur: purchased machines, employed workers, ran factories and mines, and found the necessary capital and markets. They took the new techniques and ideas, and trained a work force unaccustomed to working with machines in factory conditions
Factory system: hundreds of workers, who produced goods in a repetitive series of steps and specialized tasks, tended rows of machines, horrible working conditions: long hours, risk of injury, child labor
Industrial technology (Developments): John Kay invented the "flying shuttle" (1722); Abraham Darby invented an efficient iron smelting technique (1708); Newcomen and Watt improved the steam engine; George Stephenson developed the modern railroad "the Rocket" (1830);
Railroads: carried people and cargo with ease and speed, reliability exited everyone, practical, houses and streets were knocked down to build them, created new jobs while also destroying old ones
Crystal Palace Exhibition: (1851) London hosted the first international industrial fair at the Crystal Palace. Had arching glass roof, steel framing, and was a testament to modern engineering. Showed Britain had become the world's first industrial nation.
Industrialism vs. Traditionalism: Industrialization didn't really spread to outside Britain until ater 1830. A few modern industrial shops and machines sprang up around Europe, but overall agriculture and tradition still dominated economic life. After 1830, large industrial centers had arisen in Belgim, France, and Germany. Most of southern, central, and eastern Europe remained untouched by industrial development because of lack of resources, transportation, mobile work forces, commercialized agriculture, capital for investment.
Changing Gender Roles: Roles of men and women became more seperate as urban life grew. The home became women's sphere while men were supposed to be the respected economic provider.
Labor Laws: worker's unions helped establish labor laws, although they were minimal and child labor not abolished until much later
Working Class Consciousness: Industrial workers all lived in the same area, worked in the same buildings, had similar problems, and joined the same trade unions. They began to see themselves as a seperate class.
Urban Growth: Population was increasing. Landowners dispossessed individuals of their small farms. This pushed people from land. Cities attracted people at the same time. Towns and cities grew greatly.
Karl Marx/Frederich Engels: fathers of communism, suggested that one day the proletariat would overcome the bourgeoisie and capitalism would undo itself.
New Woman: Industrialization pulled many working-class women away from homes and into factory jobs. Employers preferred to hire women because they worked for lower salaries and seemed more pliable than men.
Darwin: Developed theory of evolution and natural selection: those who adapted and took risks were at an advantage, those who didn’t fell behind. The working class fell behind economically because they merely worked and took no risks.


Belgian Congo: example of the exploitation and imperialism of the time. see below for specifics
Imperialism: extending the rule of an empire or nation over foreign countries or of holding colonies. Europeans were extending influence over globe, specifically in this unit over Africa.
Berlin Conference of 1884-85: European conference to promote the threes Cs : Christianity, Commerce, and Civilization. The conference set up three goals to achieve these: to ensure free trade for all nations throughout the Congo, to ensure free navigation for all countries on the Niger River of West Africa, and to agree on a set of rules by which Europeans could proceed to divide the rest of the continent.
King Leopold II: Belgian leader, wanted to build up an overseas empire in order to secure his position in the world. Claimed he was 'civilizing' Africa.
Reasons for Colonization: The 3 G's: Gold- natural resources, God- missionaries converting Africans to Christianity, and Glory- national pride because of conquest.
White Man's Burden: the idea that white men want to civilize all 'uncivilized' countries, and that they think it is their responsibility. This connects to the European countries holding the Berlin Conference, and trying to 'civilize' Africa.
Force Publique: was made up of officers from Europe and soldiers from the Congo and other African states. It became known as the largest military force in Africa and took more than half the Free State's Funds. Many of the soldiers were slaves who were fed poorly, not paid well, and often abused. It was put in place to control the Congo Free State and to put down the Swahili up-risings.
Rubber: the biggest harvesting product/ most useful natural resource in Africa. King Leopold made African natives become slaves and harvest the rubber with brutal conditions. The African slaves also didn't get paid at all for their hard work for the Europeans.
E.D Morel: was the head of his company's Congo department, recognized from examining the accounting books that nothing resembling free trade was taking place in the Congo. Claimed he 'stumbled upon a secret society of murderers.' Morel became a spokesman for the cause. Believed that the fundamental problem in the structure of the Free State was the fact that the native people had their land seized from them and were forbidden to sell the fruits of their labor to the highest bidder, and that the State had taken control of land and labor and therefore determined all prices and wages.
Joseph Mobutu: took over the country after Lumumba was assassinated, and established a new Congolese government. He established a one-party system, and declared himself head of state. “His reign was most noteworthy for its corruption, repression, human rights violations, and cult of personality.” “Mobutu's rule caused much disarray in an already failing Congo. The United States supported him politically and financially, and he was later assassinated by his own bodyguard.

Chapter 20

Age of Ideologies: Time when Western European societies went toward a liberal democratic government. They put into place reforms that aided the lower and working class.
Bismarck (Germany): Germany's chancellor, supported universal male suffrage. Believed that most workers and peasants would vote for his conservative policies. He solidified the German states and people under Prussia. He attacked against catholic church for not being nationalistic, restricted religious orders. His stance weakened when catholics resisted, but only because he wanted support for a more important cause - fight against Socialists. Working against socialists made Germany a leader in in enacting progressive social policies, but his campaign would fail.
Marxism: In Germany, unions, especially among the unskilled workers grew dramatically and coalesced into a national Marxist organization. Karl Marx and Frederich Engels had theories of what they believed was an idealistic government. they believed in the abolition of private property, that everything belonged to the community. And they believed that the proletariate would rebel and dicatate over the bourgeosie, and create an orderly government. Marx's theory helped shape the ideals of the communists, who chose to create a workers paradise, and have a communal country instead of a government.
Socialism became a major force within the working class and in politics during the late 19th century. most looked to Karl Marx for inspiration. Socialism enjoyed its greatest success in Germany. They were urged to cooperate with the capitalist classes to obtain immediate benefits for labor and to advocate a gradual approach to socialism.
Anarchism: Anarchists, though associated with socialists, made more radical demands. They stressed the elimination of any form of authority that impigned on human freedom. They believed that human beings, once freed from the corrupting institutions that oppressed them, would naturally cooperate with one another. Anarchism became influential in Spain, Italy and France, where it appealed to trade unionists, artisans, agricultural laborers, and shopkeepers suffering from unemployment and declining wages. They originally believed that a general strike would overthrow the capitalists, but some turned to violence.
Anti-Semitism is at the opposite end of the of socialism and anarchism. Anit-Semitism often appealed to conservative nationalists. There had been a long prejudice against Jews (since the middle ages), but because of the spreading ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution it had enabled the Jews to gain new rights and a certain degree of legal equality. During the last decades of the 19th century, nationalism took on a militant and authoritarian tone. This strengthened racist and anti-Semitic beliefs. The myth of the Aryan race, German superiority, was created. Those who felt threatened by liberalism and capitalism began seeing Jews linked to both.
Ultranationalism: Ultranationalist politicians used anti-Semitism to rally crowds, shift the blame for failed policies away from themselves, and win votes. Conservative nationalists, some who were German, believed that they Aryan race was superior, and they gathered strong anti-Semitic beliefs.
New Imperialism: In the 1800's, because of the mass migration of individuals, the western powers began to expand into the non-western parts of the world. They were in need of more land, and they saw great potential in Africa and Asia. They subdued local opposition and reshaped the existing societies to fit their own purposes. They brought their western culture and institutions to Africa and Asia whether those people wanted them or not. The race of Europe to expand their empires.
Patterns of Conquest: The first regions colonized by Europe was the coastal areas. When technology advanced more, they were able to move inland, influencing the countries to a greater extent.
Legacy of Imperialism: When the west came and dominated Africa adn Asia between 1870 and 1914, they destroyed the world that the native people had long known. They also carried diseases that decimated the Pacific populations. In some places, westernization was good for the country in some areas, like preventing small internal wars. But the west did not respect the natives' cultures, and they also distorted non-western economies to serve the demands of their own commerce. They completely destroyed families and communities, and the traditional structures were broken down, and turned into chaos. Imperialism extended the already intense economic and political competition among the European states, heightening the potential for major conflict among these powers.

Chapter 22

Militant Nationalism: When nationalism and the military come together and come up against other countries, possibly leading to a confrontation.
Alliance System: The outburst of imperialism pitted European countries against eachother in the race to acquire colonies and expanding their arenas of influence. The German statesman Otto van Bismark initiated the alliances. He allie Germany with Austria-Hungary and Russia to avoid any possibility of a two front war. But when the new German Kaiser took over, he allowed the alliance with Russia to drop, int he hope of extending German influence over areas of concern to Russia. New alliances formed as European states tried to protect themselves and pursue their ambitions. Italy joined Germany and Austria-Hungary, for they were rivals with France, forming the Triple Alliance. Russia then joins France and Britain, forming the Entente Cordiale or later called the Triple Entente. These alliances made some Europeans believe that they could avert major wars, but they also gave smaller powers an opportunity to influence the decision of larger powers; everone feared losing an ally.
Triple Entente – Alliance involving the UK, France and Russia, formed in part as a response to the formation of the Triple Alliance. See Alliance System.
Triple Alliance – The alliance formed between Germany, Autro-Hungary and Italy after the death of the Archduke. See Alliance System.
Balkans: Europe's most unstable area. An area of strong nationalistic aspirations of several peoples who were dominated by the Ottoman Empire and A-H.
Archduke Ferdinand- heir to the Austro-Hngarian throne. Gavrilo Princip murdered him on June 28, 1914, and this sparked WWI
Gavrilo Princip/black hand- Princip was part of a Bosnian nationalist organization and killed Archduke Ferdinand. He was trained by the Black Hand, a Serbian terrorist group
Central Powers – One of the two sides in the war, consisting of Germany, A-H, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria. Ultimately lost the war, which resulted in heavy post war decrees to be inflicted on them.
Allied Powers – The side opposing the Central Powers, consiting of France, the UK and Russia, who were later joined by the United States and Italy. Were the victors of the war.
Western Front – the name of the area where the German and French armies fought, dominated by trench warfare, minimum land gain and large death counts.
Trench Warfare – a style of warfare developed during World War One that was used primarily in the Western Front. While it worked well in holding ground, it was primarily a defensive tactic that caused the amount of land gain in the war to be minute.
Battle of Verdun – the longest and bloodiest battle that occurred during World War One, making it possible the longest and bloodiest battle in human history. It took place between the French and German on the Western Front and was a battle that is comparable to the Battle of Gettysburg in terms of how crucial is was to the outcome of the war.
Battle of the Somme – was an Allied offensive on the Western Front that proved to be one of the most deadly battles in history, each side taking massive casualties. However, the Allies found ways to replace the large causalities while the German’s did not, making it another important battle in the German’s defeat.
Eastern Front – The line of battle taking place between Russia and Germany, marked by it’s harsh conditions and cold weather, two elements that made it impossible for trench warfare to take place.
Southern Front – the front in Serbia that involved the Serbs and A-H.
Total War – Was the name given for the new type of warfare that came out the World War One where the war was deeply felt in all aspects of an average citizen’s life. This could be attribulted to the new technologies that made the threats of air raids possible, the large amount of countries participating just coming of out a period of colonization or the wide spread propaganda being spread by the governments.
Propaganda – During World War One, the Government Officials commonly used propaganda to gain the support of the people, to stir up anger directed towards the opposing countries, or to encourage men to join the army..
Zimmerman Note- was the name of the note intercepted by Brittan’s spys that was being sent from Germany to Mexico. In return to allying with them and attack America from the South, this note promised Mexico prime portions of America’s land. This was the note that spurred America into joining the war.
U.S. Involvement in World War One – Up until the time of the Zimmerman Note, US involvement had been limited as they simply supplies arms for the Allied Powers. After the Zimmerman Note, their armies were sent primarily to the Western Front in order to help the French and British soliders.
U-Boats – Were the boats used by German’s in World War One in order to attack both any suspected arms ships coming from America and to attack the strong British Navy.
Treaty of Versailles: Architects: leaders of France, Great Britain, U.S., and Itlay. Provisions: War guilt clause, territorial redistribution (colonies, Europe, grouping languages, reparations.)
"hard peace" vs. "just peace": At the Gathering at Versailles, there was a conflict between Clemenceau (France), who wanted a "hard peace" that would render Germany harmless and Wilson (US), who wanted a "just" peace free of vindictiveness. Wilson feared that a harsh settlement would leave Germany resentful and eager for revenge. Clemencaue wanted wanted a victory worthy of the sacrifices made during war.
New borders: after WWI. Treaty of Versailles re-inspected colonial claims. Wilson’s 14 points also called for new borders to form based on nationality. Ex. Italy. Settle borders in specific places where war took place.
League of Nations: formed by treaty of Versailles to prevent war, settle disputes with countries through negotiations, insert diplomacy, and improve quality of life. However, league seemed to fail primary purposes by WWII. Later replaced by united nations
Nicholas II: tsar of Russia during time of Russian revolution. Selectively did not listen to peasants or intelligentsia (Bloody Sunday) During WWI, Nicholas went to head the army instead of focusing on running a country. Abdicated March 12 1917 during March Revolution. Family executed by Bolsheviks. Last Tsar of Russia
Russian Revolution: there were essentially 2 (1905 and 1917) 1905: after loss of Russo Japanese war, there was disillusionment with government. Showed that government was not able to be run by nobility so peasants petitioned à bloody Sunday. Nicholas produced Duma. 1917: peasant and women demonstrations of food shortages and bread prices. Nicholas abdicates in March, Duma creates provisional government. Provisional government overthrown by communist Bolsheviks. Soviet Union becomes communist state.
March Revolution: March 1917. hunger in cities; food prices go up and there are shortages. Peasants stop producing as much. Women start demonstrating in the streets and the troops sent by Nicholas end up joining in. Nicholas unable to rule Russia any longer abdicates and Provisional Government takes place. Lenin and the Bolsheviks come to later with plans to overthrow Provisional Government.
Duma: essentially a parliament set up by tsar Nicholas II The duma creates the provisional government which then must elect a new Duma, create a constitution, and keep the war going (WWI)
Constitutional parliamentary democracy: After the fall of the Tsar, most members hoped that Russia would move toward a constitutional parliamentary democracy. It was led by Pavel Milyukov and Prince George Lvov (upper class). The provisional government enacted into civil liberties, religious freedom, equality before the law, union rights. They promised more fundamental social reforms and constitution. It did not succeed to satisfy many.
Soviets: councils/workers that leaned toward socialism/communism. Part of Soviet Union. Ex. Petrograd Soviet. Soviets and Provisional Government put Russia through a period of Dual government
Bolshevik: radical communist. Bolshevik party run by Lenin. Wanted control of soviets and gained control of Petrograd soviet pretty quickly. Take total control during November Rev after stopping Duma meeting. See April theses: Bolshevik opposition. Be elite and highly trained.
Lenin(ism): Lenin was a Russian revolutionary, communist politician, leader of October Rev, first head of Soviet Union, and theorist of Leninism. Headed Bolsheviks. Abolished capitalism and romanov dynasty. Leninism was an extension of Marxism and influenced development of communist ideas within soviet union. Lenin shared Marx's belief that the proletariat would overthrow the bourgeoisie, but he believed that people couldn't wait until that happened naturally. He wanted violent revolution!
July Days: In July 1917, a massive popular demonstration against the provisional government in Petrograd erupted. Most members of the Bolshevik Party supported the demonstration, howver the leadership did not. The Kerensky government put down the demonstrations with force, resulting in what were called the bloody “July Days”.
Trotsky: Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) was a key figure in the Bolshevik seizure of power in Russia, second only to Lenin in the early stage of Soviet communist rule. However, he lost out to Stalin in the power struggle that followed Lenin's death, and was assassinated while in exile.
Red Guard: Lenin’s armed workers militia units.
November Revolution: On November 6th, Lenin and Trotsky launched a well organized seizure of power. Lenin’s Red Guards took over control centers and arranged for the transfer of power to the soviets and Lenin. Kerensky, the former leader, was forced to flee. On November 7th Lenin was elected as the head of the new government.
Communism: A doctrine based on revolutionary Marxian socialism and Marxism-Leninism that was the official ideology of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. It is also a final stage of society in Marxist theory in which the state has withered away and economic goods are distributed equitably.
Civil War: A bitter civil war beoke out in Russia following the peace with Germany. The Russain aristocracy (“white” forces) launched a series of attacks against the Bolshevik regime. The French, Britsh, Greek, Polish, Japanese, Czech, and U.S. troops came to the aid of the White forces against the communists.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in force for only eight months, was a separate peace agreement between the Central Powers and Russia. It was designed to end the latter's participation in World War I without the consent of the Allied Powers. Lenin opene dthese peace negotiations with Germany, and they, sensing Russia’s helplessness, demanded the harshest of terms. Lenin was eventually forced to sign the treaty.

Chapter 23

Self-Determination: The idea that a country should be able to govern themselves without the input or influence of other nations or entities.
Importance of Nation-State: Nation states are pretty much small versions of countries, autonomous in governance and defined by geography and language barriers. Other than that…I have no clue.
Costs of War: This isn’t exactly rocket science. Both human tolls of war, the monetary cost, tearing countries and alliances apart, straining the world stage, etc.
Weimar Republic: The new German govvernment after WWI, capital was a small town called Weimar. Totally bankrupt. Created after a rebellion of workers, soldiers, etc against the corrupt government. It was a largely inefficient democratic republic, unequipped to deal with the reparation payments and the war-torn economy after WWI. Poverty and unemployment were prevalent during this time period
Rhineland: An area of Germany, containing the Rhine river, where most of the infrastructure was located. Occupied by the Allies until 1930, when the French left and a little while later Germany broke the surrender terms and retook the Rhineland, instilling a large sense of nationalism in Germany. It was Hitler’s gamble that the French wouldn’t take military action against him, and he was right. It’s the French. Their only battle plan is holding their hands up and finding the nearest white flag…
Inflation: Inflation is the decrease of the value of money, as the rate of printing increases. Weimar Germany had so many war reparations to pay back, they just printed trillions of dollars worth of Marks. Therefore, the value went down exponentially. So you had to spend $5,000,000,000 for a sausage. The reparation payments of WWI were made in gold. Since Germany was on the Gold Standard, this loss made them unable to print the same amount of paper money as before the war, if they wanted the money to retain the same value.
Roaring Twenties: A period of relative success throughout the whole world. The other face of the 1920’s, called so for the turn about of popular culture. The change in art, architecture, and clothing all show the blatant sexuality of the decade. It was also the first time Jazz music became popular worldwide.
Dada: German cynical art. An art movement focusing on clean, functional lines and simplicity.
Jazz Age: Music and art took hold in Germany during the Roaring Twenties as a way for people to express their feelings. Starting with the end of WWI and ending with the Great Depression, the Jazz Age was a revolution of tastes. Named for the sudden popularity of Jazz music, this age was the beginning of Modernism and Art Deco styles. From the innovative literature of the age sprang the ideas of political individualism. The Jazz Age is commonly thought of as a term for the Roaring Twenties in America.
Fascism: Fascism is a social and political ideology with a few key ideas to set it apart. The first is that the individual is unimportant. Only when the country stands together are they strong. This idea is from the Latin word fasces, the root word of fascism. It developed from Marxism/Communism. The second main idea is that people are not equal. Those that are inherently better will lead. The third important idea is the theme of constant change. There is always something wrong and always something to be improved.
Dictatorship: A system of government when one person takes control of the government or is appointed. They are unrestricted by law or other social or political factors within the country. Single leader is often backed by the military. Has a negative connotation.
Authoritarianism: The strict obedience of a people to the state or power. Often achieved through oppression. Few to no civil liberties allowed.
Mussolini: First fascist leader, leader of Italy. Absolute tool.
Lenin: Leader of Russian Social Democratic Party, issuer of April Theses, strong advocate of communism and communistic rule.
Stalin: Much more violent than Lenin, believed to be responsible for over 20,000,000 deaths – all of Soviet citizens. Leader of Soviet Republic for years.
Great Purges: In 1934, a high soviet official was assassinated which gave Stalin an excuse to eliminate potential rivals. The incident led to terror, house arrests, bizarre show-trials, torture, imprisonment, and executions- all approved by Stalin. Stalin and party officials blamed difficulties during the five-year plans on many and purged the accused. The purges ended in 1939 with over one million people killed, terror spread across Soviet society, for everyone knew someone accused and arrested, and almost all the original Bolshevik leaders and Red Army’s top officials were gone.
Five-Year Plans: The plan called for the rapid, massive industrialization of the nation by strictly regulating all aspects of production. To complete the Five-year plan in four years, Stalin planned to lead Soviet industrial development against the threatening reactionary forces of capitalism and religion. As if preparing for another war, Stalin ordered the USSR’s entire society to mobilize for industrialism.
Collectivism: To help accomplish the five-year plan’s goals (which included doubling agricultural production) the state took agriculture out of control of individual peasants by consolidating their lands into huge collective farms that used modern machines. By determining prices and distribution of crops, the state expected to use the “surpluses” towards industrialization. The state also tried to use this to push peasants towards becoming industrial workers in cities. Wealthy landowners resisted the new policies, destroying their own crops, and were either killed or exiled. Famine spread and took the lives of many. Even through all this, Stalin still managed to have almost all of the land collectivized within ten years.
Mobilizing for Industrialization:
Concentrated on producer goods (engines, tractors) instead of consumer goods in order to industrialize Soviet Union. steel mills, dams, power plants, mines factories, railroads sprung up everywhere. Faced pressure to produce targeted results. Government worked to inspire young people to work hard. All elements of Soviet society were mobilized to make Soviet Union an industrial power.
Great Depression: Sparked by the crash of the New York stock market. Post-war economy was built on weak foundations from war reparations, international credit, and foreign trade, and the economy collapsed quickly. Non-western countries suffered as well now tied to the economic fate of the west through trade. Poverty, disease, malnutrition, unemployment, tensions, and (obviously) depression spread.
Nazism: movement headed by Hitler. national socialism. form of facism (hard to describe)
Hitler: head of the nazi party. introduced anti semetic ideas to germany. was attractive because of his abilities to speak to the people and bring Germany up after a time of economic defeat.
Himmler: handpicked by Hitler to lead the SS and the "blood purges" in the SA - see "Night of the Long Knives"
SS: more elite group of the german army. had to prove their german heritage (blue eyes blonde hair) and was much more loyal to hitler in his uprising as leader
Gestapo: secret german police (under authority of the SS)
Four-Year Plan: The Four Year Plan was a series of economic reforms created by the Nazi Party. The Four Year Plan included: Reduced Unemployment; increased synthetic fibre production; public works projects. went against treaty of versailles.
Spanish Civil War: When the popular front, made of radicals, socialists, communists, replaced the democratic republic, a group of generals led by Francisco Franco launched an armed rebellion against the new government. Hitler and Mussolini, looking to advance facism, gain an ally, test new weapons, sent arms and troops to aid Franco. Western democracies did not help the Loyalists. Hoping to maintain good relations with Italy and Germany, they committed to a policy of neutrality. Franco's rebels overthrew Loyalist resistance and Franco ruled Spain until 1975.
Appeasement: Leaders of Germany, Italy, France, Britain met at Munich to come to resolution of what to do with Sudetenland. Britain and France chose appeasement - giving in to Hitler's demands in hopes of satisfying him - and Hitler got Czechoslovakia
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact: Stalin signed non-aggression pact with Hitler. In return for Soviet Union's neutrality while Germany carved up Poland, Hitler gave Stalin a free hand to reannex territories in Eastern Europe that Russia had lost during WW1. Soviet gambled that they would be able to stay on the sidelines while fascist and democratic governments destroyed each other.
National Socialist German Workers' Party: One of the parties that Hitler joined. He became the leader a year later. Wasn't socialist nor well supported by urban workers despite the name. No...this was the Nazi Party.
SA: paramilitary wing of stormtroopers that Hitler organized, they promoted Hitler's ideas and beat up people who opposed them.
Paul Hindenburg: president of the weimar republic. gave hitler chancellorship so sparked Hitler's accessibility to power
Reichstag: government builidng where parliament was held
Night of the Long Knives: eliminated opposition, "blood purges" get rid of any obstacles within committees
Joseph Goebbels: hitler's 2nd in command
Maginot Line: line of forttresses in France. ran out of money to continue building so they had fortresses up to the forest on the border between france and germany thinking german troops
Sudetenland:After breaking the Versailles Treaty in the Rhineland, Hitler claimed a portion of Czechoslovakia - Sudetenland.
Munich Conference: Summer 1938- Munich- England, France, Germany and Italy have a meeting, and they decided to allow Hitler to take the Sudenten lands officially, because most of the people in the Sudenten lands are German. Russia was not apart of this decision, they get mad because there are Slavs in Czechoslovakia...if you leave Stalin out, he will not forget about it.
Blitzkrieg: the fast attack Germany used in WW2, involved air, land and sea attacks, sometimes all at once. very effective.
Battle of France: German armies assaulted Luxembourg, Netherlands, France. British and French armies moved into Belgium to support them. French depended on Maginot Line to hold off Germans, but was useless. Germans went to English Channel and cut off Allied armies in Belgium and trapped them at Dunkirk. Demoralized France. Germany took northern France and Atlantic coast.
Dunkirk: germany traps french and British troops on the beaches of Dunkirk, British civilians rescue the soldiers
Vichy: A city in France where the authoritarian French regime governed the unoccupied portion of France after the Battle of France.
Battle of Britain: Britain had to take on Germany alone after collapse of France. Germans bombed Britain relentlessly. Winston Churchill rallied country. Britain fought off Germans through high morale of people, increased output of aircraft factories, Churchill's leadership. Britain won.
Three Theaters: Pacific, North Africa, Mediterranean
Operation Barbarossa: Hitler's plan to take the U.S.S.R in 6 weeks - Russian Winter causes plan to fail. Setback in expansion of Hitler.
US Enters War: Japan hoped that the war in Europe would make US to cede dominance to Japan in southeast Asia. Japan attacked American forces at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. US declared war on Japan and days later Germany and Italy declared war on US.
Hitler's New Order: racist agenda revealed - start of concentration camps, ghettos, and persecutions of Jews
The Holocaust: Jews were lowest on racial scale and fared the worst in Hitler's schemes. Nazis herded Jews into ghettos. For a while envisioned the emigration of Jews to Madagascar. Instead, Hitler began policy of extermination. SS began killing Jews in masses by shooting and later gas chambers. Nazis built six death camps in Poland. When they arrived, they were either worked to death or sent straight to the gas chambers. Nazis murdered more than ten million Jews.
Hitler's Final Solution: Nazi plan to exterminate Jews.
Concentration Camps: Labor camps that soon turned into death camps used for the extermination of the Jews.
D Day: Allies able to push Germany back and Germany severely crippled, victory leads to eventual downfall of Germany.


This question will probably tie two or three different ideals together. The people Mr. Curley put on the study guide are responsible for fascism, communism, and other -isms. The question will then probably be something like:
How has the new thinking, brought about by the Enlightenment, led to the creation of Fascism and Communism? Use the attached documents to support your answer.

Things to think about:
  • Who was the most persuasive in creating their argument?
  • Who were the documents directed toward?
  • How were the documents received?
  • Comparisons between documents

Four Ways He Will Ask Questions:
  • Compare/Contrast documents
  • What's the influence of one document on another
  • What's the influence of the documents on history
  • How do documents reflect time period

Karl Marx - communism: capitalism will destroy itself.
Cahiers de Doleance - Page 133
Maximilien Robespierre - Page 138. Leader of Jacobins; president of National Convention; member of Committee of Public Safety; see IDs "Reign of Terror," "Jacobins," "Robespierre," Thermidorian Reaction"
Immanuel Kant - Page 44. natural rights, enlightenment helps one leave "immaturity"
Friedrich Engels - Page 235. similar to Marx
Adolf Hitler - Page 334. nationalism, anti-semitism, militarism, rid society of weakness
Vladimir Lenin - Page 283, 284. same belief of Marx that Proletariat will dominate one day, but believed people should not wait - encoraged violent change
Galileo vs. Inquisition - Page 37. common sense, heliocentric, motion not caused by God, skepticism
Woodrow Wilson - Page 285. self-determination, supported zionism, women's suffrage and free trade
Samuel Smiles - Page 236: self help, national progress = individual industry, labor is a blessing
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - Page 49. protection from self-interest. Social Contract.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen - Page 135. natural rights, equality, general will, protection of property
Voltaire - Page 47. Candide, individualism
World War I Poetry -

. Galileo vs. Inquisiton

-Science is more certain than reliigion.
- Learn from experience rather than scriptures.
- Nature is more like a religion - it is “inexorable and immutable” - does not
transgress the kaws iposed on her
- Nature should be preffered over the Bible, which is based on only addertions
or probable arguments.
- It is nice document, not being mean about the church, just stating his
beliefs that nature is more reliable and should come first.

2. Imanuel Kant - “What is Enlightenment?”
- Leaving self-casused immaturity - mostly religion
-intelligence without help of others
-not caused by lack of intelligence, but by lack of courage
- All that is required for enlgithenment is freedom
- enlightened absolutism - a ruler who does not fear those who go against him,
but can say argue as much as you want but still obey

3. Voltaire - Philosophical Dictionary: The English Model
- Voltaire idealized England’s system / constitution
- Thought it was fair
- liberty of person and prpperty
- freedom of press
- fair justice system
- freedom of religion
- Believed England’s laws were great

4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau- “The Social Contract”
- social institutions have corrupted people
- humans in nature are freer and happier
- the social contract is the passage from nature to civilization, while still
hanging onto the freedom of nature. Basically, in order to make this passage,
Rousseau says that youhave to stay free in your own mind, and be able to think
independently still. He says everyone should be his own judge. Equality.
- “substituting justice for intinct in his conduct.” “giving his actions the
morality they had formerly lacked.”
- try to read this one over, because the language is mad hard.

5. Cahiers de Doleance
-written by third estate - list of complaints given to king / nobility.
-nation should ratify its own taxes
- meetings of estates general should be scheduled
- voting shold be counted by head
- taxes should be on same system for whole nation
- members of third estate qualify to fill offices which they are fitted for -
(equal opportunity)
- freedom from arbitrary arrese and imprisonment
- freedom of the press with regulations of marality and religion and public

6. Declaration of Rights of Man And Citizen
- passed by national assembly on august 27, 1789
-corresponds to american declaration of indepeendence
-men are born free and remain free
- liberty, prioerty, security, resistance to oppresion
- freedom to do everything that does not injure someone else. limits deterined
by law
- law can only prohibit actions that hurt the society
- law expressed general will
- equal opportunity
- only necessecary punishment
- innocent until proven guilty
- freedom of speech and religion
- security - public militrary force
- private property

Maximillien Rpbespierre - speech to national convention
- february 5, 1794
- most radical phase of revolution
- Robespierre was leader of Jacobins - most radical - and innitiated reign of
- fufill requirement sof nature
- necessary to stifle enemies and opposition, or else perish with them.
- lead people by reason, enemies by terror
- virute without terror is murderous, terror without virtue is powerless.
-”terror is nothing else than swift, sever, indomitable justice; it flows, then,
from virtue.”
- I don’t know about you guys, but I think this max guy was crazy and
about u all?

Friedrich Engles - “The condition of the Working Class in England”
- believed condition of working clas was terrible
- progressive deterioration
- thought things shold get better for workers
- eventually worked with karl marx on developing socialism

Smauel Smiles “Self-help: middle-class attitudes”
- change must come from within
- best institutions don’t give help, they help a man help himself
- national progress is sum of individual idustry
- the state depends on individuals
- industry is best education

VladimirLenin- “April Theses: The Bolshevic Revolution
- called for more radical changes
- class conciousness
- from first d=satge to second--- power going to porletariat
- no support for provisional government
- equal wages
- confiscation of private property
- single national bank
- introduce socialism

- Speech to Petrograd Soviet
- end war
- overthrow capitalism
- world wide socialist revolution

Woodrow Wilson - “The Fourteen Points”
- world peace
- freedom of navigation
- equal trade
- equality of all people and nationalities
- no arms races
- touches on a lot of nations and what they should do.

Adolf Hitler
- antisemitism
- blaming others for Germany’s problems
- extermination of Jews


1. What are the (two) most important driving forces of history?
  • powerful individuals/leaders
  • greed for power/land - desire/necessity for more
    • imperialism
  • movements
    • enlightenment - desire for knowledge
  • ideas ("isms")
    • equality
    • forms of government
    • middle class rising (Marxism)
    • communism, socialism, nationalism, fascism
  • economy
    • competition - capitalism
  • technology
    • many changes were only possible due to technological developments
      • trade, management of economies, transportation, communication
  • demographic changes

2. Progress
  • mental progress (enlightenment)
  • technology (industrial revolution)
  • progressive ideas vs. taking action
  • progress = good, things get better (definition of progress)

3. Are ideological movements linked to their place in history?
  • for example, Could communism exist today as a new idea?
  • an idea has to come in a certain time of history based on the circumstances

4. Best form of government**
  • What has made peoples' ideas about government change?