Short Answers:

Chapter 14

How did people explain observed behaviors that disagreed with their understanding of the world?

How did exploration, the printing press, and the Reformation affect people's attitudes towards the study of the world around them?
  • people began to question everything
  • Exploration demanded the use of new and precise instruments for navigation, which led to an increase in astronomy and mathematics research.
  • The printing press enabled scholars to publish and share their findings.
  • The Reformation prompted people to question long upheld views. Researchers usualy had religious motives, and they wanted new insights into the universe.

Why was heliocentrism threatening to church authorities?
  • First discovered by Copernicus heliocentrism is the theory that the sun is the center of the Solar System. Copernicus used his understandings of both the mathematical and astrological fields to create the heliocentrism theory.
  • The idea of heliocentrism was threatening to the Church because at the current time the Church believed in the theory of geocentricism, the idea that the earth is the center of the Solar System. Heliocentrism clashed with one of the church's main philosophies, that the earth is the center of the Solar System, and thus denounced the notion of heliocentrism because it clashed with Christian conception.
  • To put it bluntly the Church believed that if people found their theory of the Solar System incorrect they believed that people would begin to doubt other philosophies that the church was teaching, and thus the church would lose power. They did not want this to happen so they denounced heliocentrism to maintain their power.
What was the conflict, if any, between science and religion? Why might science have been pursued more in Protestant countries than in Catholic ones?
There weren't conflicts between science and religion because scientists didn't attack established ideas.
Why did intellectuals want human reason to "determine understanding of the world and the rules of social life?"
They wanted to expand and apply knowledge to their daily lives.
Is it logical to live with "skeptical incertainty" about everything?
  • It worked for Descartes.
  • No. Once something has been proven and accepted as truth, there should be no uncertainty about it (that's just my opinion)

How did the connection between church and state threaten the philosophes?
It prompted religious toleration, which was not necessarily practiced throughout Europe. Most governments had a state religion, and they discriminated against other religions.
What was the role of women in the Enlightement?
  • see I.D. "salons"
How did the ideas of the Enlightenment spread and gain popularity?
  • see I.D. "royal societies"
  • see I.D. "salons"
  • Encyclopedia

Chapter 15

What “enlightened” reforms did Catherine enact in Russia?
  • See I.D. “Catherine the Great”
What was the inspiration for Fredrick I’s reforms?
  • His obsession with military dominated his policies.
How had armies changed since “earlier times”?
  • See I.D. “18th century warfare”
What is unenlightened about warfare?
  • Out-right fighting took many lives
  • Weapons were now more destructive than ever
  • Loss of men and money was irrational and wasteful
What contributed to the decline of the king’s absolute power in France?
  • Expensive wars and unreformed taxation policies that depleted the treasury
  • People thought he dragged France into meaningless foreign conflicts.
What was the triangle of trade and how did it work?
  • See I.D. “triangular trade”
What effects did slavery have in Americas? Africa?
  • Americas: Racial prejudices were forming, a dependence on slave labor.
  • Africa: People were kidnapping their own people for porfit causing bloody internal wars.
  • About 50-100 thousands slaves were taken across the atlantice each year.
  • A total of about 11 million africans were taken from their homes and sold while another 4 million died on the journey.
In what areas were Enlightened Monarchs unenlightened?
  • Enlightened Monarchs or despots such as Catherine the Great of Russia were unenlightened because they failed to follow key Enlightenment principles throughout their rule. Although Catherine promised the peasantry that she would help them with their chaotic situations, she allowed noble land owners to subjugate serfs even further. When Alexander Radischev argued, " What good does it do the country that every year a few thousand more bushels of grain are grown, if those who produce it are valued on a par with the ox whose job is to break the heavy furrow?" Catherine imprisoned him, this event contradicts the key Enlightenment principle of skepticism brought upon by Descartes, giving cause to believe that Catherine is not truly an Enlightened Monarch.
What were the two major developments of the Agricultural Revolution?
  • See I.D. “agricultural revolution”
What effect did agricultural transformation have on rural society?
  • Rural communities disintegrated
  • Wealthy landowners produced crops for the market place
  • No more small farms =[
How did the Cottage Industry work? What were the pros and cons of cottage industry?
  • See I.D. “Cottage Industry”
What factors contributed to rising population in Europe?
  • Agricultural and commercial prosperity
Why didn’t the bourgeoisie fit in with either the lower classes or the aristocracy?
  • See I.D. “Bourgeoisie”
Interesting that a religious revival spread among Protestants, Catholics, and Jews at the same time. What might explain that?
  • Up for grabs. =]
What makes the “Declaration of Independence” and enlightened document?
  • Based off the ideas of enlightenment thinkers, such as John Locke.
  • Natural rights “life, liberty, pursuit of happiness”

Chapter 16

What was the surface cause of the French Revolution? What were its deeper causes?
  • Surfaces cause:
    • King’s inability to deal with France’s financial crisis.
  • Underlying Causes:
    • Aristocracy and middle class wanted more power and rights
    • Peasants revolted to end their sufferings.
    • Disrespect for the King and Queen.
What led to the calling of the Estates General?
  • France was headed towards bankruptcy.
  • Reforms needed to be settled on.
What were the complaints on the bourgeoisie?
  • Wanted the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility.
    • Exemption from taxes
    • Holding government offices
What was the influence of the Enlightenment in all this?
  • The validity of reason.
  • Natural rights
  • Questioning long established institutions
  • Terms like “nation”, “citizen”, and “general all”
What were the Three Estates?
  • See I.D. “estates general”
How did events in Paris affect the rest of France in the summer of 1789?
  • In the countryside, peasants began to revolt against their lords.
What reforms did the National Assembly make first?
  • Decreed the end of:
    • Serfdom
    • traditional dues owned to landlords
    • special taxation rights
    • Privileged access to official posts.
What role did women play in October 1789?
  • March to Versailles, stormed the palace, and bought King and family back to Paris.
What was meant by “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”?
  • See I.D. “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
If the revolution ended in October, 1791, would it have been successful?
No, because many developments took place within the next two years.
According to Robespierre, who got in the way of the Republic?
The Catholic church.
Did the Jacobins do any better than anyone else in granting rights to women?
Although they incorporated new marriage, divorce, inheritance, and education laws, the Jacobins did not want to free women from their traditional role in the private sphere.
What made "the situation ripe for the arrival of a strongman?"
France needed a leader who could bring both order at home and peace abroad, because was was dragging on, government finances were in bad shape, and brigands terrorized the countryside and cities.
What did Napoleon do to win the support of large portions of the French population?
  • welcomed old regime officials and Jacobins
  • ended serfdom and feudal privileges
  • gained middle class support by affirming property rights and equality
  • supported science

In what ways was the Napoleonic Code good? Bad?
  • Good:
    • legal equality
    • careers open to talent
    • Affirmed the Enlightenment-inspired legal reforms that early French revolutionaries had sought.
  • Bad:
    • left women legally and economically dependent on their husbands

Was Napoleon an enlightened emperor?
  • Yes - Napolean was an enlightened emperor because he organized legal, financial, and educational systems in France. He established the Civil Code in 1804 which is also known as the Napoleonic Code.
  • No - Many of his reforms included tax increased and conscription quotas to help finance and provide soldiers for Napoleon's armies.

Chapter 17

For whom was the Industrial Revolution good? And for whom was it bad?
  • Good- The Industrial Revolution was good for Merchants who used cheap labor to their advantage.
  • Bad- The Industrial Revolution was bad for the Workers. At the time no labor laws were present and factory owners took advantage of there workers
What political factors contributed to Englands success?
  • The rise of Commerce contributed to Britain's success.
What made England different from other stable, wealthy, European countires?
  • Brittan had many advantages such as a far cheaper water transportation system and certain raw material such as coal and iron. The island had the capital to invest due to it's growing agricultural and commercial prosperity
How did population growth and colonization affect demand?
  • The population growth and colonization created a need for more materials and more jobs.
What role did machines and their inventors play?
  • The machines cheapened production while improving quality. As wealth increased and people moved away from subsistence farming toward the burgeoning urban centers, the demand for manufactured goods reached unheard-of levels. Inventors rushed to fill this demand.
What role did entrepreneurs play?
  • Entreprenuers purchased machine, employed workers, ran factories, and mines.
What did the introduction of the steam engine do to industrial processes?
  • The steam engine first used in the early eighteenth century to pump water provided a solution to the drough summer and cold snaps in the winter that could dry up or freese the essential water that was used as power by all early mills. The steam engine would become the industrial revolutions most important advance. It allowed entrepreneurs to locate factories away from water power sites and create bigger cotton, iron, and other factories.

Chapter 20

How do schools and armies create feelings of patriotism?
Many governments established national systems of free compulsoory public education at the primary- school level. This policy was created to promote patriotic citizens. They also wanted to citizens with skills and discipline needed by modernizing economies and military establishments.

What groups felt left out of the political dealings of the 1800's?
Anyone who was not a white male landowner.

How did Socialist political parties justify working within the bourgeois system? Why didn't they just encourage workers to overthrow the capitalists?
Socialists were not as revolutionary at this time. They were not looking to overthrow anything yet, because they believed the rise of the Proletariat was inevitable.
What political leanings usually were drawn to antisemitism?
What scientific developments of the 1800s would allow people to argue for "scientific" antisemitism?
Pseudoscientific thought, which labeled Jews as a separate and inferior race.
What was the relationship between Nationalism and Imperialism?
Aggressive nationalism led to Imperialism.
What were some of the more acceptable justifications for imperialism?
Westerners saw themselves as bringing "blessings" of their civilization to "backward" people. Implied promise is that West will bring benefits of technology, faith, and civilization to thankful Africans.
How did racism play into the desire for imperialism?
See ID "White Man's Burden"
What technology made it easier for Europeans to create and maintain colonies?
Steam powered iron ships conveyed messages, materials, and people across oceans quickly and cheaply. Railroads carried travelers across land. Suez and Panama canal cut thousands of miles off journeys.
What happened to create the Scramble for Africa?
  • Egypt had interested Britain and France for a while. When Suez Canal was built, British wanted control over it to secure their position in India. Britain took advantage of Egypt's financial distress and purchased the ruler's controlling of the canal stock. Britain held most of power. France gave in to Britain's control in return for British support of French ambitions in northwestern Africa.
  • At the same time, King Leopold II of Belgium initiated competition by devouring Congo. Worried about missing out on land grab, other European powers (France, Germany) voiced claims.

What do you think the ripple effects of European policies in Africa were?
Western powers not only forcibly drew non-Western lands into a world economy, they also exploited the natural human resources of the conquered lands and profoundly undermined the cultural, social, and religious traditions of the African and Asian peoples. Local workers left behind shattered families and communities. Political structures that had long functioned effectively in these lands broke down in a few years.
How much of colonialism was driven by humanitarian interests?
Not much. It was all about profit. Foreign trade quadrupled in the eighteenth century, and a large part of that increase derived from transactions with the colonies. France and Great Britain made their greatest profits from trade across the Atlantic.
What is the tension between economics and morality?
Doing "the right thing" is not always beneficial for the economy.
Is it bad that many cultures were lost during Imperialism?
It is bad because Africans were so influened by Imperial powers they had to give up their culture.
How did Imperialism heighten tensions between European nations?
Imperialism extended the already intense economic and political competition among the European states, heightening the potential for major conflict among these powers.
How did Imperialism create Nationalism?
As the West increased its domination of Africa and Asia, the tensions between European nations heightened, resulting in aggressive nationalism.

Chapter 22

What were the causes of World War One?
  • Alliances
  • Assination of Archduke Ferdinand
  • Militant Nationalism
What were the challenges to the stability of the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
  • Conflicts in the Balkans
    • Ethnic differences
What was the Schlieffen Plan? Was it effective?
  • Germany's plan to move past neutral Belgium, attack France, and focus on Russia.
  • Was not effective because Britian's troops helped France to stop the Germans
What was the nature of fighting on the western front?
  • See I.D. "Trench Warfare"
  • See I.D. "Western Front"
What was Russia's role in World War One?

What was the effect of World War One on Russia?
  • Civil War in Russia
  • Russia was forced to drop out of war, leaving Russia unstable.
What was the nature of fighting on the eastern and southern fronts?
  • See I.D. "Eastern Front"
  • See I.D. "Southern Front"

What is total war?
  • Originating in the 19th century, total war is a time when a country mobilizes all available resources to win a conflict. It is during this time that war begins to affect the daily life of people of the country that is in war. For example a factory producing canned goods may be turned into an ammunition factory.
How was World War One a total War?
  • See I.D. "total war"
How did the war change the social landscape of Europe?
  • Gender Roles
  • Lowered moral of populace
Why did the US become involved in World War One?
  • See I.D. "Zimmerman Note"
  • See I.D. "U.S. involvement in WWI"
What were the costs of World War One?
  • See I.D. "Treaty of Versailles"
  • See I.D. "hard v.s. just peace"
  • Death and Destruction
What were the goals, strengths, weaknesses, and legacy of the Versailles Treaty?
  • See I.D. "Treaty of Versailles"
  • Left countries unhappy (Germany)
  • Broken Promises
What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?
  • WWI
  • weak leadership
  • no organization
  • Russo-Japanese War
What is Leninism?
  • See I.D. "Leninism"
Who are the Bolsheviks?
  • See I.D. "Bolsheviks"
Who was fighting and why were they fighting in Russia's Civil War?
  • See I.D. "Civil War"

Chapter 23

What were the causes of economic uncertainty in the interwar period?
  • The interwar period refers to the time between the first and second World War, approximately (1918-1939)
  • Countries trying to retool their economies from war, from wartime needs to ordinary economics
  • People emotionally drained from the death that had taken plce in WWI. People had not quite yet from WWI and were not yet emotionally ready to contribute to economics.
  • Large sums in veteran's pay, war-widow benefits, and unemployment drained government treasuries.
  • The victors of WWI were hoping for high war reparations from Germany. When it was found that Germany could not supply countries such as Britain and France with what they expected, Britain and France began borrowing money and printing more money. The result was Inflation, between 1914 and 1928, France's currency lost four-fifths of its value.
  • (More to add, but to lazy right now.)
What was the Weimar Republic? Defining characteristics?
Germany moved its capital here in an attempt to establish a new government. It was set up as a model liberal democracy. Led by moderate Social democrats, it was an example of the "roaring twenties" because of new art movements (see ID "Dada" and the Bauhaus school).
What threatened the stability of the Weimar Republic?
Nationalists and right-wing parties looked on the new parliamentary system with contempt. War reparations caused the German government to print more bills, leading to hyperinflation. Socialists tried to get a foothold in the W.R.
Why were the twenties "roaring"? What were the defining characteristics of visual culture coming out of this period? Why did these characteristics resonate with the people of Europe?
This was a period of exuberance and popular culture.
Why was the appeal of democracies weaker than that of dictators?
Countries coming out of WWII looked for strong leadership.
What are the defining characteristics of fascism?
A system of political and social order intended to reinforce the unity, energy, and purity of national groups (essentially, it was a dictatorship).
What was the appeal of fascism to the people?
It embraced class differences (national unity, Darwinian struggle).
In what ways was the Soviet Union transformed under the leadership of Lenin?
Lenin's regime envisioned itself leading the world into modernity. Cultural activities promoted proletarian pride, the benefits of technology, and the glories of the future. The NEP encouraged the outside world to end its isolation with Russia. To many socialists throughout the West, the Soviet Union stood as a source of hope and inspiration.
The Soviet Union had a fully planned economy, with the state determining production, prices, and distribution. The USSR had become the third-greatest industrial power in the world. For the first time, the majority of the population was literate. However, the cost was tremendous. 15-20 million people had died from starvation, execution, or the harsh conditions in forced-labor camps as a result of Stalin's policies (see ID "Stalin").
What was the significance of Stalin's Five Year Plans?
The plan called for the rapid, massive industrialization of the nation by strictly regulating all aspects of production. Stalin planned to lead Soviet industrial development against the threatening reactionary forces of capitalism and religion. As if preparing for another war, Stalin ordered the USSR's entire society to mobilize for industrialization.
What were the effects of the Great Depression on Europe?
There was a feeling of helplessness throughout Europe. Laissez-fair was blamed (government not setting economic regulations).
What were the defining characteristics of Nazism?
A form of fascism that assaulted the liberal, democratic tradition of the West. According the Nazi doctrine, the political order should be dominated by a single party head by a dictatorial leader, Hitler, who appealed to the mases. In addition, Germany should rearm and redress the "injustices" of hte Versailles Treaty by conquering the Slavic people in the east to gain "living space" (Lebensraum).
Why was Nazism able to take hold in Germany in the 1930s?
After the Great Depression, the people were looking for something to hold onto.
Why were policies of racial, cultural, and religious persecution incorporated into the Nazi agenda?
Hitler wanted to create an Aryan race. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, nationalism strengthened racist and anti-Semitic thought (see ID "antisemitism").
How did Hitler rise to power? What does this path indicate about Germany at the time?
He promoted himself through propaganda and the idea of strength through joy. He also held the promise of German stability and being a unifier of the people. Germany was in need of a leader who would bring them out of the Great Depression.
Why did Britain and France pursue policies of appeasement?
They hoped to satisfy Hitler's demands so that he would not continue his takeover of European land.
Why is September 1, 1939 a significant date for World War II?
The Germans launched an all-out attack on Poland by sea, land, and air. Hitler was convinced that Britain and France would not go to war over Poland. Two days later, France and Britain declared war on Germany.
What were the defining characteristics of the German combat strategies in World War II?
See ID "blitzkrieg."
What are the turning points of World War II? How do these events shift the power dynamic and momentum in Europe?
  • Operation Torch: Had the axis forces gotten past Africa, it would have opened up more opportunities for war in Asia and the Middle East.
  • Battle of Britain: The British RAF used its superior aerial warfare to defeat Germany after the German bombing campaigns.
  • Siege of Leningrad/Battle of Stalingrad: The Russian army held off German troops and forced them to retreat.
What was the Holocaust?
See ID "Holocaust."
How were targeted minority communities increasingly marginalized and persecuted?
See ID "concentration camps."